北京28

Pulp & Paper Glossary

Browse below the most comprehensive collection of technical and commercial terms used in the pulp, paper, printing, publishing, and related industries. PaperIndex Glossary has definitions of more than 1,600 terms including some obscure and many popular & frequently-used terms.

A0

An ISO 'A' series paper size - 841x1189 mm or 33.11x46.81 inches or 2384x3370 points (widthxheight)

A1

北京28An ISO 'A' series paper size - 594x841 mm or 23.39x33.11 inches or 1684x2384 points (widthxheight)

A2

北京28An ISO 'A' series paper size - 420x594 mm or 16.54x23.39 inches or 1190x1684 points (widthxheight)

A3

北京28An ISO 'A' series paper size - 297x420 mm or 11.69x16.54 inches or 842x1190 points (widthxheight)

A4

北京28A common ISO 'A' series size of about 8-¼ by 11-¾ inches or 210x297 mm or 595x842 points. Used as the standard cut-paper size outside of the United States. The US equivalent is a letter size (8.5 x 11 inch) paper.

A5

An ISO 'A' series paper size - 148x210 mm or 5.83x8.27 inches or 420x595 points (widthxheight)

A6

An ISO 'A' series paper size - 105x148 mm or 4.13x5.83 inches or 298x420 points (widthxheight)

A7

北京28An ISO 'A' series paper size - 74x105mm or 2.91x4.13 inches or 209x298 points (widthxheight)

Abaca

A plant commonly known as manila hemp.

北京28Abrasion Resistance

北京28A measure of paper's durability when subject to abrasive action.

北京28Abrasive Paper

A type of paper that is coated on one or both sides with abrasive powder such as emery.
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Abrasiveness

A property of paper causing it to scratch the surface it contacts.

Absolute Moisture

The absolute moisture of the air is the maximum amount of water vapor, the air can contain before the excess water is released as dew. Absolute moisture is measured in grams per cubic meter.

Absorbable Organic Halogen (AOX)

北京28The amount of chlorine chemically bound to soluble organic matter in the effluent.

Absorbency

北京28The ability of a paper or board to take up and retain liquids such as water or ink.

北京28Absorbent Core

北京28The principal fluid-holding component of disposable hygiene products. Absorbent cores usually contain a combination of fluff pulps and super-absorbent polymers.

Absorbent Papers

北京28A grade of paper that takes up and retains liquids such as duplicator, blotting, filter papers, and toweling.

Accelerated Aging Test

A technique to estimate the permanence of paper by exposing it to simulated conditions of heat, moisture, and/ or chemicals.

Accept

Fibrous raw material accepted after cleaning and/or screening for further processing in papermaking.

北京28Accordion Fold

A type of paper fold in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion affect. Accordion folds are used on products such as catalogs, brochures, and maps.

Acetate Pulp

A high alpha cellulose pulp made especially to be dissolved in acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and sulfuric acid for making acetate rayon and acetate fibers.

Achromatic

北京28Materials that are white, gray, and black with no color or hue.

北京28Acidfree Paper

A type of paper, which does not contain any acidic substance that may affect acid sensitive material. Such papers are used for archival purposes.

北京28Acid Migration

北京28Transfer of acid from an acidic material to a less acidic or neutral-pH material. Acid can also migrate from adhesives, boards, protective tissues, paper covers, etc.

Acid Paper

A type of paper that has clay as the predominant filler and an acidic rosin-aluminum mixture as the internal sizing agent.

北京28Acid Proof Paper

A type of paper that is not affected by acid physically or chemically.

Acid Size

Rosin size containing a large proportion of emulsified, free, or uncombined rosin.

北京28Acidic Sizing

北京28Internal sizing carried out in acidic pH range (0-7). Examples of acidic sizing are rosin and alum sizing.

Acidity

北京28Degree of acid found in a given paper measured by the pH factor. Paper can become acidic from the ingredients used in its manufacture, from the environment or both.

Actinic Rays

Light exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.

Activated Sludge Treatment

A biological method of cleaning up waste waters in three stages.

Active Alkali (AA)

北京28Caustic soda (NaOH) and sodium sulfide (Na2S) expressed as Na2O in Kraft pulping liquor.

北京28Actual Weight

北京28Accurate weight of a given quantity of paper, which is different from the same paper's nominal weight.

Adding Machine Paper

Paper in roll form for use on adding and tabulating machines.
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Additive Colors

In photographic reproduction, the primary colors of red, green, and blue which are mixed to form all other colors.

Additives

Fillers, dyes, sizing, and other chemicals added to pulp or coatings to impart the paper greater smoothness, color, opacity or other desirable attributes.

Aerate

北京28Refers to a process in which an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to separate the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.

Aerated Lagoon

A biological wastewater treatment method in which air (oxygen) fed into an aeration basin to reduce the BOD, COD, and AOX content of the effluent.

Aerogramme

A single sheet of paper folded and gummed on three sides. Bears international preprinted air postage and the word “aerogramme" Intended for airmail correspondence to other countries.

AF&PA

American Forest & Paper Association, established in 1993, merged the activities of the American Paper Institute (API), National Forest Products Assn. (NFPA), and American Forest Council (AFC).

Against the Grain (Cross Direction)

北京28Cutting, folding, or feeding paper at right angles to the grain or machine direction of the paper.

Aging

北京28Irreversible deterioration on of paper properties over time. Sunlight and heat accelerate the loss of strength and brightness.

Agitator

Equipment used to keep content of a tank or chest in motion and well mixed.

北京28Air Blade Coating

Coating subjected to a thin jet of air. Air jet removes excess coating and smoothes surface of freshly coated paper. (Same as air knife coating)

Air Brush Coater

A coater, which uses the pressurized air to atomize the coating mixture and spray it on the paper.

Air Dry

Refers to any pulp and paper sample that has its moisture content in equilibrium with the surrounding atmospheric conditions. Conventionally, air-dry pulps are assumed to contain 10% moisture.

Air Drying

Method of drying the paper web on the paper machine by blowing air along the direction of the web.

北京28Air Filter Paper

北京28A type of paper used for filtration of air to remove suspended particles. (For example car air filter, vacuum bag etc.)

Air Knife Coater

A device that applies an excess coating to the paper surface and then removes the surplus by impinging a flat jet of air upon the fluid coating, leaving a smooth film on the paper.
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Air Knife Coating

A method of coating using an air-knife which acts on the principle of a doctor blade and uses a thin, flat jet of air for removing the excess coating from a wet, freshly coated sheet of paper.

Airmail Paper

It is lightweight, high opacity, good quality writing / printing paper for airmail. Generally produced in white, off white or a pale blue for stationery purposes, usually below 40 g/m2 for reasons of postage costs.

Air Permeability

Also referred to as "porosity”. The ease with which pressurized air can flow through a sheet of paper. Typically measured by the Gurley or Sheffield porosity tests, which measure the volumetric flow of air through the paper thickness.

Air Pollution

The contamination of air around the plant due to the emission of gases, vapors, and particulate material in the atmosphere.

Airbrush

A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine midst of paint or ink; used in illustration and photo retouching.

Air-Dried Pulp

北京28Pulp is described technically as air-dried when its moisture content is in equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Commercially, pulp is usually described as air-dried when the moisture content of the pulp is 10%.

Albion Press

A hand operated printing press made of iron.

Album Paper

北京28A paper with an antique finish used for pages of photo albums.

北京28Albumen Plate

Offset printing plate coated with light-sensitive albumen. It has a photosensitive coating.

北京28Albumin Paper

A coated paper used in photography. The coating consists of albumin (egg whites) and ammonium chloride.

Algae

Micro-organic plant life that forms in paper mill water supplies.

北京28Alkali Blue

Also called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks and varnishes to improve luster.

北京28Alkali Proof

Paper that resists discoloration through contact with alkaline substances, such as soap. Glassine and waxed papers are used for such purposes.

Alkali Resistance

A tendency of paper not to be stained or discolored or to undergo a color change when brought in contact with alkaline products such as soap and adhesives.

Alkaline Paper

Paper manufactured under operating conditions with a pH greater than 7.0. Such papers have calcium carbonate as the filler and a synthetic material, compatible with the alkaline process, as a sizing agent. This process increases the longevity, bulk brightness, opacity, and printing characteristics of the paper without added cost.

北京28Alkaline Papermaking

北京28Paper manufactured under alkaline conditions, using additives, basic fillers like calcium carbonate and neutral size. The anti-aging properties in alkaline paper make it a choice for documents where permanence is required.

Alkaline Pulping

北京28Pulping by alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide, with or without sodium sulfide. Without sodium sulfide, it is called Soda process and with sodium sulfide, it is known as Kraft or Sulfate process.

Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA)

北京28ASA is a sizing agent that increases paper's resistance to water penetration.

Alpha Pulp

北京28A high alpha cellulose chemical pulp. It is also known as dissolving pulp.

北京28Alternative Fiber

Alternative pulps to wood pulps used in papermaking.

Alum

A papermaking chemical used for precipitating rosin size onto pulp fibers to impart water-resistant properties to the paper. It is also known as paper maker’s alum or hydrated Aluminum Sulfate {Al2(SO4)3}.. It is responsible for introducing acid into the paper.

北京28Aluminum Paper

北京28Packaging paper made by mixing aluminum powder into the furnish or by coating or laminating the sheet with aluminum powder

Aluminum Foil Lamination

The combination of thin Aluminum foil with a paper backing used as a positive moisture barrier. Normal combination is Kraft backing with Aluminum foil laminated to the Kraft by means of asphalt, adhesive, or polyethylene.

Anaerobic Treatment

北京28An effluent treatment system that uses microbes in the absence of oxygen to break down organic matter into methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.

Aniline

北京28Oil based solvent (quick drying) used in the preparation process of dyes and inks.

Animal Size

Glue and gelatin extracted from animal hides and used as a papermaking size.

Animal Sized

A technique of paper making which hardens the surface by passing the paper through a bath of animal glue or gelatin.

北京28Announcements

Folded cards or envelopes that are generally used as stationery for social announcements.

Annual Renewable

北京28Annually harvested crops such as hemp, esparto, bamboo, and cotton for use in papermaking.

Annual Vegetable Fiber Or Agricultural Residue Fiber

A source of fiber for pulp and papermaking such as wheat or rice straw or other fibrous by-products of agriculture.

Anti Rust Paper

Paper containing added substances, which give it the property of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rusting.

Anti Tarnish Paper

Paper capable of protecting bright metallic surfaces against tarnishing.

Anti-Foam or Defoamer

Chemical additives used at wet-end to reduce or eliminate foam in white water.

Antiquarian

The largest available handmade paper (53 x 31 inches).

Antique Paper

A printing paper with a rough finish but good printing surface, used in book printing for its high volume characteristics. Antique papers having good bulk and opacity with rough or matte surface.

Antique Finish

北京28A bulky paper with a rough surface used for book and cover stock.

北京28Antique Glazed

北京28A paper, which has a high finish on one side and an antique finish on the other.

北京28Apparent Density

Weight per unit volume of a sheet of paper obtained by dividing the basis weight by the caliper (thickness). Typical values of apparent density range from 0.75 (in loosely formed or less dense papers) to 1.20 for highly bonded sheets.

北京28Approach Flow System

The stock flow system from fan pump to headbox slice.

Apron

Sheet of oiled cloth, leather, or rubber, which bridges the gap between the breast box and the moving wire on a Fourdrinier machine.

Archival Paper

北京28A paper with long-standing qualities, acid free, lignin and sulfur-free, usually with good color retention. Most commonly used for historic documents. The archival paper must be long lasting without causing deterioration to itself or other materials it may come into contact with.

北京28Art-Lined Envelope

A colored or patterned envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper.

Art Paper

Paper, normally wood-free, suitable for 4-colour printing, evenly coated with a fine clay compound, which creates a hard smooth surface on one or both sides
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Artificial Parchment

Woodfree paper produced by fine and extended grinding of chemical pulps and mixture of special additives. It is used for wrapping meat.

Artist's Paper

北京28A high-grade paper for drawing, made with a close weave.

Ash

The mineral residue left after burning a sample of paper to determine the percentage of filler it contains.

Ash Content

Ratio of mass of residue after combustion to mass of sample (pulp/paper) before combustion

Auto chrome Papertdef

北京28Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-colored printing jobs.

Azure

北京28The light blue color used in the nomenclature of "laid" and "wove" papers.

Azure Laid Papertdefi

北京28A laid paper usually blue in color having a good writing surface.

B0

北京28An ISO 'B' series paper size - 1000x1414 mm or 39.37x55.67 inches or 2835x4008 points (widthxheight)

B1

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 707x1000 mm or 27.83x39.37 inches or 2004x2835 points (widthxheight)

B2

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 500x707 mm or 19.69x27.83 inches or 1417x2004 points (widthxheight)

B3

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 353x500 mm or 13.90x19.69 inches or 1001x1417 points (widthxheight)

B4

北京28An ISO 'B' series paper size - 250x353 mm or 9.84x13.90 inches or 709x1001 points (widthxheight)

B5

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 176x250 mm or 6.93x9.84 inches or 499x709 points (widthxheight)

B6

北京28An ISO 'B' series paper size - 125x176 mm or 4.92x6.93 inches or 354x499 points (widthxheight)

B7

北京28An ISO 'B' series paper size - 88x125 mm or 3.46x4.92 inches or 249x354 points (widthxheight)

B8

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 62x88 mm or 2.44x3.46 inches or 176x249 points (widthxheight)

B9

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 44x62 mm or 1.73x2.44 inches or 125x176 points (widthxheight)

B10

An ISO 'B' series paper size - 31x44 mm or 1.22x1.73 inches or 88x125 points (widthxheight)

Back

北京28Marks left in a sheet of handmade paper, which has been dried over ropes.

北京28Back Lining

北京28The fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the back of a book before it is bound.

Back-To-Back

北京28Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.

Backing Up

Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

北京28Backlining Paper

Smooth finish, hard-sized paper varying in thickness from .009 to .011 of an inch.

Backwater

北京28The water, which passes through the forming fabric during paper formation. It contains dissolved or suspended matter such as fines, filler, etc.

Bagasse

The matter left over after extracting sugar from sugarcane.

北京28Bagasse Pulp

Pulp obtained by chemical means from bagasse, the residue after extracting the juice from sugar cane.
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Baking

北京28A term given to the procedure of drying coatings on paper surface.

Bale

Solid, compressed stack of pulp or paper sheets

北京28Baling Plant

Part of a pulp mill where pulp sheets are converted into bales.

Bamboo

A grass yielding fibers used for papermaking.

Bamboo Pulp

Pulp obtained by chemical means from the stems of bamboo, a type of grass common to Asiatic countries.

Banding (Strapping)

Steel, plastic, fiber or other bands used to secure or protect rolls, sheets, loads, etc.

Bank Note Paper

An age-resistant paper, suitable for 4-colour printing, with watermark and falsification safeguards such as embedded metal strip. Often containing cotton fibers.

Bank Paper

A thin, uncoated paper used for making carbon copies.

北京28Bark Steam Boiler

A boiler that burns mainly bark and other biofuels to produce steam.

Bark Waste

A main source of energy for pulp mills. The tree stem is debarked before chipping, the bark is recovered and burnt at a steam power plant.

Barn Doors

A device with two sets of thin metal doors (horizontal and vertical) placed before a light source to control the direction of light.

北京28Barograph Paper

北京28A thin paper coated on one side with a white wax, so that the needle of the barograph leaves a red line on a white ground.

北京28Barrier Coat

A coating that is applied onto the non-printing side of paper to increase the opacity of the paper.

Baryta Paper

北京28A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines.

Base Board

北京28Board intended for coating, laminating, etc.

Base Paper

北京28Paper intended for further processing, e.g. Coating or lamination.

Base Stock

北京28Paper that will be further processed as in coating or laminating.

Basic Size

北京28Specific, standard sheet size from which the basis weight of a given grade is determined.

北京28Basis Weight

Weight per 500 sheets of paper (one ream) of different paper grades weighed by their designated basic sheet size.

Bast Fibers

The long strong fibers from the inner bark of woody plants such as kozo, mitsumata, and gampi, also the outer layer of plants such as flax, hemp, and jute. The fiber is stripped and beaten in order to separate the fibers to make paper. The longer the fiber, the stronger the paper.

Batch Cooking

The method of cooking sulphate pulp in several batch digesters.

Batik

A method of treating fabric or paper with wax before dyeing, so the treated area does not pick up color.

BCTMP

北京28Bleached Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping.

Beatability

北京28The ease with which pulp can be beaten to achieve the desired properties

Beater

北京28Large, longitudinally partitioned vat used to mix and mechanically work pulp with other ingredients such as additives and color to make paper.

Beater Additive

Starch, gum, or resin added to the papermaking stock in the beater to improve the utilitarian quality of the paper.

北京28Beater Colored

A method of dyeing paper stock by adding coloring to the pulp in the beater.

Beater Roll

北京28Cylinder or drum set with knives set against a bedplate to cut up rags in a beater trough.

Beating

Mechanical treatment of fibers to increase surface area, flexibility and promote bonding when dried.

Bending Chip

北京28Paperboards using a recovered paper furnish to make folding cartons.

北京28Bending Stiffness

Bending stiffness represents the capability of paper/board to resist the forces responsible for bending action. It also indicates the capability of paper to support its own weight while clamped in cantilever form.

Beta Radiography

北京28Beta radiography is a technique using beta rays to measure thickness, moisture, density, and basis weight etc of paper.

BF

北京28An abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy is to be used.

Bible Paper

北京28A thin and strong paper (opaque) with high filler content, used for bibles and books. It is used in deluxe productions such as bibles, dictionaries and high-quality publicity productions.

Binder

Materials, which cause coating pigments to bond. The most frequently used binder is starch, but synthetic binders are also used to give improved performance.

北京28Binder Migration

北京28A coated paper defect where specks give a grainy or textured appearance to the coated surface.

Binder's Board

A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books.

Biocide

A chemical such as fungicide or a bactericide used in papermaking.

北京28Biodegradable

Organic materials such as food and paper that are broken down by microorganisms into simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, water, or minerals.

Bioenergy

北京28Energy generated from renewable biomass e.g. Plants and plant components

Biofuels

北京28Renewable fuels for example from wood and bark.

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

A measure of the amount of oxygen needed by aquatic organisms to break down degradable organic matter present in effluent. The higher the amount of decomposable material, the higher the BOD value.

北京28Biological Waste Water Treatment

北京28A method of cleaning up wastewater using living microorganisms such as bacteria.

Biosludge

Sludge formed in the aeration basin during biological waste water treatment or other biological treatment process

Bisulfate Pulp

Pulp made by the bisulfate cooking process using bisulfate cooking liquor.

Bisulphite Pulp, Sulphite Pulp

Chemical pulp produced by cooking chips in a solution of sulphur dioxide and ammonium-, calcium-, sodium- or magnesium-sulphite

Black Liquor

A mixture of spent cooking chemicals and dissolved wood material remaining after pulping. Black liquor is concentrated by evaporation, and burnt in the recovery boiler to regenerate the cooking chemicals and also produce energy for the mill.

北京28Black Photo Paper

北京28A black paper used to protect photosensitive materials.

Black Printer

北京28Refers to the film portion of the color separation process that prints black; increases the contrast of neutral tones.

Blackening

Defect associated with calendered paper where local areas of paper are apparently darker or greyer color due to the paper being too damp when passed through the calender.

Blade Coated Paper

Paper coated by a process in which the freshly applied coating film is smoothed and the excess removed by a thin, flexible metal blade.

北京28Blade Coating

A widely used coating method in which excess coating color is scraped off by a blade

Blade Mark

北京28Caused by a foreign piece of material caught under the coating blade, resulting in a scratch or streak that causes the paper surface to appear less opaque under a low angle light. Also known as a blade scratch or blade streak.

Blanc Fixe

Precipitated or artificial barium solution.

Blank Book Paper

Bond, writing, news manila writing. Grade depends upon the purpose for which the blank book will be used.

Blanket

北京28A surface material (rubber) covering the printing cylinder that transfers the ink from the plate to the paper.

Blanket-To-Blanket

北京28A printing method in which a sheet of paper is passed through two blanket cylinders and is printed on both sides.

Blanks

Heavyweight paperboard that range from 15 points to 48 points in thickness. Can be coated, uncoated, or colored.

Bleach

北京28A chlorine solution used to whiten pulp in papermaking.

北京28Bleach Plant

北京28Area of a pulp mill where pulp is bleached.

Bleached Pulp

北京28Pulp that has been bleached by means of chemical additives to make it suitable for white paper production.

Bleaching

北京28Removal or reduction of color in pulp to improve its brightness.

Bleed

Ink that extends beyond the edges of a piece of paper is said to bleed off the sheet. In a printing project, usually a bleed will cost more to produce than a piece that does not bleed.

Blind Emboss

北京28A design impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.

Blind Folio

北京28A page that is counted in the overall counting of pages, but the number is not printed on the page.

北京28Blind Image

A problem that arises in the lithography process when an image loses its ink receptivity and fails to print.

Blister

A defect on a paper surface often shaped like a human blister.

Blister Pack

This term describes a packaging system, which is a combination of board and plastics. The product is sealed to the board by a transparent plastics film. This system is often used for small products of difficult shapes and sizes.

Blistering

北京28The process of separation of the paper’s coating from its surface, which appears in the form of eruptions. Usually caused by high drying temperatures, high paper moisture, or low internal bond strength.

Block

Illustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used in letterpress printing.

Block Resistance

北京28The resistance of coated papers to blocking. Refer Blocking.

Blocking

北京28The adhesion of one coated sheet to another, causing paper tears or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper surface.

北京28Blotting Board

A high absorbency paperboard.

北京28Blotting Paper

Bulky, absorbent, filler-free paper, which is mostly produced from pure cotton in the form of bleached linters and from chemical pulp. The advent of the ball-point pen has greatly reduced its demand.

北京28Blow-Through Drying Process

A system using dry steam or hot air that blows through the wire. The blow-through drying process enabled tissue products to be dried in much less time.

Blue Angel

A German eco-label. To achieve this, paper has to contain 100% post-consumer waste.

Board

The line of demarcation between paper and board is indeterminate. However, generally a thick, stiff paper or card usually made in several layers (or plies) with a substance normally varying from 150 to 500 g/m2, for certain grades even higher; widely used for packaging (e.g. folding cartons) and graphic applications.
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Body Stock

北京28Base stock, or coating raw stock for plain or decorated papers.

Bogus

Product made from wastepaper or other inferior materials in an imitation of higher-quality grades.

Bolts

北京28The edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in the final stages of production.

Bond Paper

A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper made form bleached chemical wood pulps and cotton fibers. It is most commonly used for letterheads, stationery, business forms, etc.
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北京28Bond Strength

北京28The strength of paper or board to withstand layer-to-layer separation. Paper with good bonding strength will not pick during the printing process.

北京28Bone Dry (B.D.)

北京28This term refers to the moisture-free conditions of pulp paper. It also refers to air containing no vapor.

Book Block

A term given the unfinished stage of bookmaking when the pages are folded, gathered, and stitched-in but not yet, cover bound.

Book Paper

北京28Classification of paper that includes various grades and many finishes, among the grades being uncoated book paper and coated book paper used by printing establishments, publishers, etc. Made as wove or laid and can have finishes of antique, eggshell, machine, supercalendered, coated, dull, matte, or glossy.

北京28Bottle Labeling Paper

A special body paper coated with an adhesive mixture. Must resist blocking under humid conditions.

北京28Bound Galleys

北京28The bound galley is used for promotional purposes and is frequently sent to book reviewers prior to printing the book.

Box Board

Paperboard used in the manufacture of boxes. May be made of wood pulp or wastepaper. May be plain, lined or clay coated.
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Box Cover Paper

A wide variety of white, colored, coated, uncoated, flint glazed or embossed lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper boxes.

北京28Box Enamel Paper

A glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.

Box Liners

A coated paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used for food.

Box Paper

北京28Plain or coated papers usually colored and embossed.

Braille Paper

北京28A smooth and high strength paper suitable for the production of raised dots needed to manufacture reading material for the blind.

Break

Total rupture of a web of paper during the manufacturing of printing process, which results in a tear from edge to edge.

Breaker

北京28Reduces rags to smaller pieces for beating in a Hollander.

Breaking Length

A measurement of tensile strength of paper corrected for its basis weight. This represents the theoretical length of a uniform width of paper that, when suspended by one end, would break by its own weight.

北京28Breast Roll

北京28Roll number one over which a Fourdrinier wire passes.

北京28Brightening

Addition of optical brighteners to the stock to make the pulp appear whiter

Brightness

Paper, paperboard, and pulp are measured through a lab test to determine the degree of reflectivity as measured by blue light to determine its brightness level. Paper brightness affects the legibility and contrast of printing. Printers, publishers, sellers refer to brightness which may be approximately by various photometers such as Photovolt, Elrepho, GE Brightness, Hunter Lab.
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Bristol

A stiff, heavy paper with a caliper of 0.006” and more. Examples include bogus, folding, index, printing and wedding bristol, bristol covers, postcard and coated postcard.

北京28Brittleness

北京28A property of paper that causes it to break when subjected to binding, converting, finishing, folding, and handling. Factors, which contribute to brittleness are composition, moisture, drying and aging.

Broad Fold

A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain.

Brocade

北京28A type of heavily embossed paper.

Brochure

A pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.

Broke

Paper or board discarded during manufacture or converting of paper; usually repulped.

Broken Carton

北京28A quantity of paper less than a full carton.

北京28Broken Edges

Damaged edges of paper.

北京28Broken Ream

Less than a full ream (500 sheets) of paper.

Bronzing

A printing method whereby special ink is applied to sheets and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect.

Brownstock

北京28The pulp obtained from the cooking process.

Brush Coated Paper

Paper that has been coated by off-machine brushes.

Brush Coating

A method of coating a web of paper in which the applied coating is distributed and smoothed by means of brushes.

Brush Finish

A high polish given to paper. It is obtained by running the dried or partially dried coated paper over a revolving drum provided with six or more rapidly revolving cylinder brushes, which contact the coated surface of the sheet.

Brush Glazing

Glazing of coated paper with the aid of brushes.

北京28Brush Marks

北京28Brush marks on the surface of brush coated paper due to improper application of the coating.

Buckle

北京28An area of paper rolls where the paper is overly compressed and creates a buckle when it is wrapped.

Buckle Folder

北京28A portion of the binding machinery with rollers that fold the paper.

Buckram

A coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.

Buffering

北京28The acid neutralization in paper by adding an alkaline substance (usually calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate) into the paper pulp. The buffer acts as a protection from the acid in the paper or from pollution in the environment.

Bulk

北京28A term used to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative to its basis weight. It is reciprocal of paper density. In the paper trade bulk is a more commonly used measure than density to indicating the "compactness" of paper. Also known as specific volume.

Bulk Product

北京28A mass-produced product sold in large volumes without individual specifications, usually in compliance with a standard, e.g. Newsprint.

北京28Bulking Board

北京28Non-calendered board, lighter in weight per point of thickness.

北京28Bulking Thickness

The thickness of a pack of sheets divided by the number of sheets in the pack.

Bulky Mechanical

北京28A mechanical paper made to a specific caliper as opposed to a fixed grammage. This type of paper is used mainly for mass market paperback books.

Burnout

北京28The loss of color during drying.

Burnt Paper

北京28Paper, which is discolored and brittle, but otherwise, is intact.

Burst

An irregular separation or rupture through the paper or package

Burst Factor

北京28The resistance of paper to rupture when pressure is applied to a side by a specified instrument.

北京28Burst Index

北京28The quotient of the bursting strength of a paper and its grammage in the conditioned state as defined in the standard method of test.

北京28Burst Resistance

北京28The resistance to bursting of a sheet of paper, paperboard of package when subject to impact or pressure normal to the surface.

Bursting Strength

The strength of paper in pounds per square inch, as measured by Mullen tester. This is also referred to as burst and pop strength.
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Business Communications Paper

北京28Paper for use in stationery, business forms, checks, copier papers, duplicating papers.

Business Form

Paper prepared to facilitate the entry of written information in a pre-determined format. Usually contains repetitive information to save preparation and reference time.

C1S

Coated on one side of the paper.

C2S

Coated on two sides of the paper.

Cable Paper

A strong paper used to wrap electrical cables.

北京28Cadmium Yellow

A pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide.

Calcium Carbonate

A type of loading agent used in papermaking as filler or coating pigment to impart opacity to paper.

北京28Calendar Board

A high-strength paperboard used for calendars and displays.

北京28Calender Finished

北京28Paper and paperboard that has been passed through a calendar to improve surface characteristics by application of pressure, friction, and moisture.

北京28Calendar Rolls

A series of polished cast iron rolls at the end of a paper machine where the paper is passed between the rolls to increase its smoothness and gloss.

Calender

北京28A on or off the paper machine device for smoothening, glazing, caliper reduction, and caliper leveling of the surface of the paper to improve the finish and reduce the printing roughness of the paper.

北京28Calender Barring or Marks

Irregularly shaped bands across the paper web caused by damaged calender rolls.

Calender Blackening

Glazed translucent spots on paper surface caused by excessive calender roll heat, pressure, poor or excessive and uneven moisture level.

Calender Crushed

Paper that has been crushed in the calendering process.

北京28Calender Dyed

Paper or paperboard that has been colored or stained at the calender stack.

北京28Calender Finish

Finish imparted to paper by the calendering process.

Calender Marks

Marks left on the paper during the calendaring process. Calender blackening and barring are the two most common examples.

Calender Sizing

北京28Sizing chemicals applied to paper sheet during the calendering process.

Calender Stack

A series of horizontal cast iron rolls at the end of a paper machine where the paper is passed between the rolls to increase its smoothness and gloss.

Calender Vellum Finish

Extra smooth vellum on paper surface imparted by calender rolls.

Calendered Paper

北京28Paper that has been smoothed and polished between a set calender rolls. The effect produced by the calendering process is the result of friction combined with temperature and pressure.

Calendering

Operation carried out by means of calenders for improving the paper finish by increasing gloss and smoothness.

Caliper

北京28The thickness of a sheet of paper, expressed as thousands of an inch (points or mils), or in microns. Uniform caliper is needed for good printing and for runnability in converting processes.

北京28Canadian Standard Freeness (CSF)

北京28The rate at which water drains from a pad of pulp, measured under standard test conditions.

Canvas Board

北京28A paperboard (used for painting) with a surface of simulated canvas.

Capacity

In paper industry, the capacity of a machine or mill is usually stated in terms of tons per day or tons per year.

Capacity Utilization Rate

Indicates the efficiency (%) at which a mill or machine is operates.

北京28Carbon Black

A pigment made up of elemental carbon and ash.

Carbon Paper

A grade of tissue paper coated with the mix of oils, dye (pigment), and wax. Paper coated with carbon, which release inks under pressure or impact for making duplicate copies with pen, typewriter, and business machines.

Carbonizing Paper

北京28Lightweight, uncoated paper made from unbleached chemical and/or mechanical pulps. Its surface is coated with a carbon solvent or wax.

Carbonless Paper

Paper specially treated to provide copies without the use of interleaved carbon.
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Card Stock

A heavy grammage paper also known as Cover. Used as covers of catalogs, brochures, books or business cards.

Cardboard

北京28A thick, stiff paper produced by pasting multiple layers of paper together.

Carload

A quantity of paper shipped from a paper mill in one freight car.

Carton

A container usually of relatively thin carton or folding board manufactured by carton manufacturers. It is delivered to users in either flat or collapsed form.

Cartridge

A rough-finish paper used for wrapping.

Case

北京28The stiff covers of a hardbound book.

Case Binding

Books bound using hard board (case) covers.

Casein

A byproduct of milk used as an adhesive in making coated papers.

Cases

Large corrugated boxes made of board, which are used as containers for packages. Cases are mainly used for transit and storage purposes.

Casing In

北京28The process of placing a book in its case covers.

Cast Coated Paper

北京28Coated paper that is pressure dried using a polished roller, which imparts enamel like gloss finish.

Cast Paper

北京28Paper made by pouring pulp into a specially constructed mold.

北京28Causticizing

Process in green liquor from sulphate (Kraft) pulping is converted to white liquor, thus allowing the cooking chemicals to be re-used.

Cellulose

The main constituent of the cell walls of all plants. All plants contain tissue that, when properly processed, will yield cellulose.

北京28Cellulose Fibers

The fibrous raw material that results from breaking down the wood or plant materials through pulping or bleaching processes. It's the primary ingredient for making paper.

Cellulose Wadding

北京28Soft crepe paper used in bundles or pads.

Chain Lines

北京28Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires (forming fabrics) of the papermaking machine. Also known as chain marks.

Chain Marks

北京28Also called chain lines. Watermarks in paper that resemble impressions of a chain, running parallel to the grain of paper. These lines are normally found in laid papers.

Chalking

北京28Chalking describes the quality of print on paper when the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks up the ink image creating loose pigment dust.

Chart Paper

A smooth paper for chart and map printing, usually printed by offset litho.

Chemical Cellulose (Dissolving Pulp)

A highly-purified chemical pulp for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fiber, solvent spin fiber, and filament.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

The amount of oxygen consumed in chemical oxidation of matter present in effluent. COD indicates the content of slowly degradable organic matter in the effluent.

Chemical Pulp

Pulp obtained by cooking wood chips in a chemical solution. Sulphite and sulphate (Kraft) are the two main processes.
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Chemical Recovery

Collection, recovery, and regeneration of cooking chemicals so that they can be used again in the pulping process.

Chemi-Thermomechanical Pulp (CTMP)

Pulp produced by treating wood chips with chemicals (e.g. sodium sulphite) before mechanical defibration.

Chest

A storage tank for pulp, furnish, water, or other materials used in papermaking.

China Clay

北京28A mineral (kaolin) used in papermaking as a filler and coating pigment. It consists of hydrated silicate of alumina.

Chip Board

北京28An inexpensive and thick one-ply cardboard usually produced from waste paper. It is used for packaging purposes as well as a backing board for notepads etc.

北京28Chipper-Canter

A machine used at sawmills to produce wood chips.

Chipping

北京28A process in which horizontally or gravity-fed disc chippers convert the debarked logs into chips for pulping.

Chips

Wood chips produced by a chipper to produce pulp, fiberboard, and particleboard.

Chiri

A Japanese term for mulberry bark. Chiri is commonly used to refer to any paper with inclusions of mulberry bark in it.

Chlorine

Chlorine and its compounds are used in the pulp production process to create whiter, stronger paper. Pulp that is not bleached results in brown paper.

Chucks

Blocks inserted at the end of core to support a roll of paper on the roll stand.

CIE

北京28Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage

北京28CIE Color Value

北京28A set of three color values (CIE or Hunter) used to designate color of paper, especially of white and near-white paper.

CIE Whiteness

Paper whiteness measured as per the CIE standards.

Cigar

北京28A small-size cylindrical web defect of pulp or tissue pulling out of the web.

北京28Cigarette Paper

北京28A lightweight paper used in making cigarette. It is unsized and normally has a filler content of about 30%.

Coated Kraft Back Boards, CKB

北京28Board consisting of either bleached chemical pulp or a mineral-coated top layer or both used for packaging food and non-food products.

北京28Clamp Marks

北京28Marks in sheets of paper caused by the clamps, which hold paper in position on a guillotine cutting machine.

Clarification

Separation of solid components from a solution.

Clarifier

北京28A basin where sludge is removed from the treated effluent by settling process. There are two main types of clarifiers flotation and sedimentary.

Classifier

A classifier sorts and separates pulp fibers according to their length.

Clay

A mineral used as filler in papermaking and as a coating pigment.

北京28Clay Coated Boxboard

A strong and easily-folded boxboard with clay coating used for making folding boxes.

北京28Clear Cutting

北京28A method of forest regeneration in which all trees in a given area are felled.

Clear-edge Carbon

北京28Carbon paper with a narrow strip along the edges to provide a clean margin for gluing and handling.

北京28Close Formation

北京28Close formation refers to the uniform density in a sheet of paper.

Closed-Cycle Mill

A concept in which all liquid effluents from a pulp mill are recovered, practically eliminating water pollution by the mill.

Closure Mechanism

Methods of creating a box shape or sealing a box.

北京28Cloth Finish

Surface finish produced by pressing the linen cloth against the paper during the manufacturing process.

Cloth-Lined Paper

Paper combined with cloth, on one or both sides.

Cloud Finish

An effect obtained when the white pulp is dropped on a web of colored paper.

Cloudy Formation

Cloudy formation is opposite of close formation and indicates unevenness and lack of uniformity of fiber structure in a sheet of paper.

Carboxymethylcellulose

北京28A water-soluble cellulose polymer used as a thickening agent in foods and detergents.

北京28Coarse Screen

北京28Halftone screens used in newsprint.

Coat Weight

The grammage of a coating layer, expressed in g/m2.

Coated

Paper and paperboards that have been coated with materials such as clay or pigment and an adhesive.

北京28Coated Fine Paper

Coated paper made from chemical pulp. Also referred to as coated free sheet.

Coated Offset

A paper coated on both sides with high resistance to picking. It's suitable for offset printing.

Coated Paper

Paper that has been coated with pigment and binder with a coat weight of 7.5 g/m2 or higher. Coated papers have a higher opacity and better ink holdout than uncoated papers.
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北京28Coated Seconds

Paper or paperboard inferior to desired quality, but still suitable for other usage. Coated seconds are usually sold at lower prices.

Coaters

Coaters are used to apply coatings to paper after the paper sheet has been formed and dried.

北京28Coating Color Kitchen

Department in a paper mill where coating color is prepared and mixed.

北京28Coating Lump

北京28A piece of dried coating redeposited onto the web of paper.

Coating Mottle

北京28Variation in gloss of a coated calender sheet. A good-coated sheet has relatively uniform gloss after calendering.

Coating Pick

The process of lifting or removal of coating particles from the base sheet during calendering or printing.

Coating Piling

Piling caused by loose particles separating from a coated sheet of paper.

Coating Pits

Coating pits refer to the microscopic holes in the coating air bubbles.

Coating Skip

Irregularly shaped areas on a sheet of paper where the coating layer is absent.

北京28Coating Splash

北京28Spots of excess coating on a coated sheet of paper.

Cockle

北京28A rippling effect in paper caused by drying at a lower tension. It can be created as a desired effect or can be an unwanted result of improper drying.

Cockle (Crinkle)

Formation of ripples on a sheet of paper caused by uneven moisture or tension during the drying process.

Cold Pressed

Textured surface produced by pressing the paper through unheated rollers.

Cold Spot Carbonizing Ink

Material coated on the back of forms selectively. It's an ink, which can be applied cold to normal printing equipment.

Cold-Set Inks

Inks that are in solid state but melt in the hot press and solidify when they come in contact with paper.

Collate

To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order.

Collected Household Paper

Waste paper collected from households.

北京28Collotype Paper

北京28A printing paper, which is durable enough to withstand excess moisture from the collotype printing process.

Color Fastness

北京28Capacity of dyed paper to retain its original color or to resist fading under influence of heat and light.

Color Lump

北京28Impressed mark on paper caused by a defect, which appears on calender rolls.

北京28Color Match

Color quality when there is no significant difference in color hue between two samples when viewed under standard illumination.

Color Progression

北京28The order in which different color inks are laid down on the paper.

Color Separation

Process of separating each of the three primary colors by optically filtering the image.

Color Strength

北京28A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an ink.

Colorimetry

Using Colorimeter, a given solid color may be quantified by analyzing physical color data.

Combination Board

北京28Cylinder-made, multi-layered paperboard with layers from different pulps.

Combined Deinking

北京28Deinking process combining flotation and washing processes.

Commercial Match

北京28Manufacturing a paper to meet the specifications of a sample of paper provided to the manufacturer.

Commercial Register

北京28Color registration measured within plus or minus one row of dots.

北京28Commodity Papers

A generic term used to classify average quality paper grades (such as bond and offset) produced in high volume on big paper machines.

北京28Communication Papers

A term used to describe paper grades (such as bond, writing and xerographic) used by printers and publishers in production of books, magazines, newspapers, etc.

Compressibility

Compressibility describes a paper's capacity to be squeezed (upon flat surfaces) and returned to its prior state. It is an important property of paper when stacks of paper are placed under compression. It is also known as Cushion.

Computer Output Paper

A grade of writing paper with strength and good printing surface. It's also known as "form bond”.

北京28Conditioned Paper

北京28Paper which has been treated in the mill by exposure to hot, moist air to increase the moisture content of the paper for achieving achieve an optimum flatness and stability.

Conditioning

Allowing paper adjust to the surrounding atmosphere until its moisture content is equal to atmospheric moisture content. This process provides for optimum performance on printing presses.

Coniferous

Trees, which are usually evergreen and classified as softwood, such as pines and firs.

北京28Consistency

Dry solids content (%) of pulp present in a pulp slurry

Construction Paper

北京28A grade paper manufactured in a wide range of colors. This high grammage paper is most often used in elementary schools for cutouts and other artwork.

北京28Contact Print

A print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a negative or positive photograph.

Containerboard

Corrugated board used to make boxes and other containers for shipping materials.

北京28Contaminant

北京28Any material that reduces the quality of paper for recycling or makes it unrecyclable. Contaminants include metal, stickies, foil, glass, plastic, food, hazardous waste, and synthetic fabrics.

北京28Continuous Cooking

A method in Kraft pulping in which raw material is continuously fed into a continuous digester at one end and the pulp and black liquor are removed from the other end of the digester.

Contraries

北京28Contraries are unwanted pieces of materials present in a sheet of paper.

北京28Conversion Coating

北京28Off-machine coating is sometimes referred to as conversion coating.

Converter

北京28A company that converts paper from its original form to usable products such as adding machine rolls, coated papers, and envelopes etc.

Converting

北京28The converting process changes the big rolls of papers into useable paper products. Through rewinding, cutting, creping, embossing, printing, coating and other process, the sheet is transformed into napkins, facial tissue, packaging, etc.

Converting Paper

北京28Paper converted from its original state into a new product such as adding machine rolls, coated papers, envelopes, notebooks etc.

Cooking

北京28A process of treating raw material with chemicals under pressure and heat to produce pulp from which the paper is made.

Cooking Liquor

北京28A chemical solution used to cook wood chips during the pulping process.

Copier/Laser Paper

A grade of low grammage, good quality, and dimensionally stable paper used in photocopying.

Copying Paper

Copying paper is an uncoated woodfree or a mechanical grade white or colored paper usually available in A4 and A3 size.

Cord

Volume measurement of pulpwood indicating a pile measuring 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft., equaling 128 ft.

Core

北京28The tube, usually of paperboard, on which the paper is wound.

Core Cards

A record of specifications included by the manufacturer in each shipment of paper.

北京28Core Damage (Core burn out)

北京28Mechanical damage to the ends of a core, which has resulted from the core chucks tearing into the core ends.

Core Damage (Crushed Core)

北京28A compressed core that is no longer round.

Core Plug

Thick disc placed inside a core to prevent core from being crushed during handling.

Core Slippage

Displacement of the core from its intended position relative to the rolled paper.

Core Waste

Core waste is the paper left on a roll after most of the paper has been used.

Coreboard

北京28Board manufactured from recovered papers to produce paper cores.

Corewood

北京28Wood located in the centre of the trunk and often darker in color than the surrounding wood

Corner Marks

Marks on a final printed sheet that indicates the trim lines or register.

Corner Stub

北京28Used primarily on continuous forms to assist in manual carbon extraction when the form has been burst.

北京28Correspondence Envelope

A flat case, rectangular in shape and made from one sheet of paper. The sheet is folded to provide a plain front and back consisting of four overlapping flaps.

Correspondence Papers

北京28Refers to writing papers with attractive finish.

Corrugated Board

Corrugated board is manufactured by gluing two flat layers of paper (liner) with a rippled layer of corrugating medium (fluting) in the middle.

Corrugated Board – Double Wall

The structure formed by three flat facings and two intermediate corrugated medium.

Corrugated Board – Single Face

The structure formed by one corrugated member glued to one flat facing.

北京28Corrugated Board – Single Wall

The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings. It's also known as Double Face.

Corrugated Cardboard

Layers of paper glued together with a ruffled or grooved inner liner. This is the material, which makes corrugated cardboard boxes.

Corrugated Fiberboard

Consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper stuck to a flat sheet(s) of paper.

北京28Corrugating Medium

Paperboard made from chemical and semi-chemical pulp, or waste paper, that is converted to a corrugated board by passing it through corrugating cylinders.

Corrugator (Corrugating Machine)

A machine that is fed the webs of corrugating medium and linerboard and flutes the medium and pastes the liner to make corrugated products.

Cotton

Cotton is the purest form of cellulose produced in nature and it requires the least amount of processing before it can be used. Cotton fibers are strong and flexible and suitable for producing fine papers.

北京28Cotton Content Paper

Papers utilizing cotton fabrics and cotton linters as a raw material.

Cotton Linters

Short cotton fibers remaining on cotton seed after the ginning process. Cotton linters are used as raw material to produce pulp for papers.

Couch Marks

Defects or shadows appearing in a regular pattern on paper. Couch marks are caused by the irregular removal of water on the wet-end of the paper machine.

Couch Roll

北京28A vacuum roll under the forming fabric. Holes in the couch roll suck out water from the stock and a felt usually picks the wet sheet off the fabric .

Coucher

北京28A person who transfers the newly-formed sheets of paper from hand moulds to felt blankets.

北京28Cover Paper

A term applied to a grade of paper used for covers of brochures and catalogues etc.

Crack

A fissure in the paper caused by break in the coating surface during the converting processes such as printing.

Crackle

北京28The noise produced from a sheet of paper when it is shaken.

北京28Crash Finish

Paper embossed at the mill to resemble coarse linen.

北京28Crash Perforation

Perforation cut through plies of a collated set of business forms. It's normally done on a collator.

Crayon Paper

北京28Paper used for crayons or watercolor. Crayon paper is a heavy board with a glazed surface on one side and rough finish on the other.

Crease

An impression or crease in corrugated or solid fiberboard is used to locate and facilitate folding.

Crepe Paper

A high elasticity paper produced by crowding the web sheet over a roll with a doctor blade.

Crimping

北京28Creasing the bindery edges of ledger sheets to help them open more freely.

Crocking

Rubbing off the dye from the surface of a paper.

Cropping

Trimming original photographs to smaller size.

Cross

A T-shaped wooden tool used to remove paper from ropes in a drying loft.

Cross Direction (CD)

Direction at right angle to the flow on a paper machine. It's also known as the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain or machine direction.

北京28Cross Grain Fold

北京28A fold at a right angle to the direction of the grain (or the machine direction) in the paper.

Cross Perforations

北京28In continuous forms, perforations cutting at right angles to the web direction.

北京28Crushed Roll

北京28Defective roll as a result of stacking rolls on end in an excessively high pile, which causes the lower ends of the lower rolls to fail in the axial direction.

Crystallography

北京28This is a science of analyzing crystalline structure of materials. In the paper industry, it usually refers to the study of cellulose. A high crystalline structure means less swelling of the fibers.

CTMP

北京28Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping is a pressurized refining process, which is preceded by the addition of sulphite. Bleached CTMP pulp is known as BCTMP.

Cupstock

Plastic-coated board for paper cup production, suitable for cold or hot beverages.

Curl

Deformation of a sheet of paper into the form of a cylinder. It is usually caused by nonuniform distribution of strains and stresses throughout the paper sheet as a result of uneven internal moisture and conditioning.

Cut

北京28Rupture of sheet in a defined region, not extending to tear the sheet into two pieces.

Cut-Off

A term used in web press printing to describe the point at which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll.

Cut-Size

北京28Fine paper cut to specific end-use dimensions on a guillotine or rotary type paper trimmer. Usually it refers to business or writing papers that have been cut to dimensions of 8-1/2 x 11 and 8-1/2 x 14 or 11 x 17 inches.

Cutter

A machine (a cross cutter or square cutter) that cuts rolls of paper into sheets for further trimming to finished basic size.

Cutter Broke

北京28Waste and trimmed paper edges from the cutting operation. This broke is reused as pulp for manufacturing paper.

Cutter Dust

Cutter dust to small particles of fiber and paper dust that result from the cutting operation. The dust adheres to the edges of paper and can work itself into the pile of paper and onto the paper surface to cause trouble during its printing.

Cut-to-register

北京28A term used for watermark papers to indicate that the paper has been cut to allow the watermark to appear in a predetermined position on the finished sheet.

Cyan

One of the subtractive primary colors, the hue of which is used for cyan process ink, one of the four-color process inks. Cyan reflects blue and green light and absorbs red light.

Cylinder

北京28A term usually applied to different types of rolls or drums on a paper machine such as dryers.

Cylinder Board

北京28Paperboard made on a cylinder machine.

Cylinder Dried

北京28Describes the paper, which is dried by passing it against the heated iron rolls.

北京28Cylinder Gap

The gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or blanket clamps is housed. In printing, space between the ends of a plate wrapped around the press cylinders.

Cylinder Machine

The type of paper machine that makes paper by partially immersing rotating cylinders in vats of pulp stock. Paper is formed as the cylinder turns and water drains from it.

Cylindrical Casting

Stereotyped cast into a curved mat to produce a casting suitable for use on a rotary press.

CYMK

Colors used in printing to reproduce color photos. The colors are Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black (or Key Color).

Dahlgren

北京28A dampening system for printing presses, which utilizes more alcohol (25%), and less water and reduces the amount of paper that is spoiled.

Damask Paper

北京28Writing paper with a finish resembling linen.

北京28Damp Streaks

Streaks caused by uneven pressing or drying.

Dampeners

In lithography, cloth-covered parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate.

Dampening

An essential part of the printing process in which a cloth covered rubber rollers distributes the dampening solution to the plate.

北京28Damping Roller

The roller on a printing machine, which applies the moisture directly to the printing plate.

Dancer Rolls

A weighted roller that rides on the web between the roll of paper and the meeting unit to take up slack and keep the web at uniform tension. It is also know as rider roller.

Dandy Roll

北京28Dandy roll is a cylinder covered with a woven wire cloth and mounted on a paper machine. It is used to improve formation and to apply watermarks.

Daphne

北京28A plant known as the 'Nepal paper plant' used as a source of fiber for papermaking.

Debarking

北京28A process in which most or all of the bark is removed from the logs before feeding the logs into the chipper, or into the grinder.

Debarking Drum

Large rotating cylinder in which pulpwood logs are tumbled against one another to remove the bark.

Debossing

A process in which an image is recessed into the paper.

北京28Decalcomania Paper

A transfer paper designed to permit transfer of printed surface to objects such as china, glass, etc. Also known as a decal.

Deciduous

Tree species that annually sheds its leaves during the Fall season. Hardwoods such as maple, chestnut, birch, and poplar are the examples of deciduous trees.

Deckle

1) A wooden frame that defines the edges of the sheet in handmade papermaking. 2) A strap or board on the wet-end of a paper machine that determines the width of the paper web.

Deckle Edge

北京28The rough or feathered edge of paper. Fuzzy edges of handmade papers are simulated in mould-made and machine-made papers by a jet of water. Handmade papers have four deckle edges, while mould-made and machine-made papers have two.

北京28Deckle Fill

Also known as machine fill. The maximum width of paper machine taken up for making paper. For economic reasons, it should approach as far as possible -- to the maximum trimmed width of the machine.

北京28Deckle Frame

A wooden frame that rests on the top of a mold during the papermaking process. It acts as a barrier to keep the pulp with in the mold.

北京28Deckle Slip

北京28Strip of wood fixed to the underside of the deckle to stop the pulp from creeping.

北京28Deckle Stain

北京28Paper that is colored or tinted along the deckle edge.

Defects

北京28Irregularities in finished paper that reduce the appearance or cause weaknesses in the sheet.

Defibration

北京28Separation of wood fibers by mechanical or chemical means.

Defoamer

北京28A defoamer is a chemical added to a liquid to reduce or eliminate the foaming tendency of the liquid.

Defoliation

北京28Premature loss of leaves due to airborne pollution or other factors interfering with vital processes in trees.

Deinkability

北京28The suitability of recovered paper for deinking process.

De-Inked Paper Stock

Recycled paper from which the ink has been removed by chemical and mechanical means to produce clean fibers.

De-Inked Pulp

A waste paper pulp prepared by a combination of mechanical disintegration and chemical treatment to remove ink from recycled paper.

Deinking

A process in which most of the ink, filler, and contaminants are removed from recovered paper.

北京28Deinking Loss

北京28Loss of useful material from the pulp during the deinking process. The loss could range between 10-40%.

Delamination

北京28Parting of layers of a sheet of paper through the plane of the sheet.

北京28Delignification

Removal of lignin from wood fibers (cellulose and hemi-cellulose). Lignin binds wood fibers together. Delignification primarily takes place during the pulping process.

Demy

北京28A term for a standard sized printing paper measuring 17.5 x 22.5 in.

Densimeter

Equipment used to analyze the porosity of paper.

Densitometer

北京28A photoelectric instrument used to measure the density of colored ink or print density.

Density

Density or specific gravity of paper is it weight per unit volume, obtained by dividing the basis weight by caliper. Paper density (in g/cm2) expresses how compact the paper is.

Deposit

Mass of airborne pollutants deposited on a unit area of land or water in a given time (in grams per square meter per year).

Deresination

A method of reducing the resin (pitch) content of wood prior to cooking either by storage or using bleaching chemicals.

Descender

A term that describes that portion of lower case letters which extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".

北京28Desensitize

北京28Coating surface of a carbonless paper with desensitizing ink to inhibit image transfer.

Devil

Machine for removing dust and dirt from rags or esparto grass (also known as a willow).

Diazo

北京28A light-sensitive coal tar product used as a coating on presensitized plates as well as overlay proofs.

Die

An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.

Die Cuttability

北京28Suitability of paper or paperboard for die cutting into blanks of a given shape.

Die Cutting

北京28A method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes. Male and female dies are used to cut paper or board in desired shapes.

Die Stamping

北京28An intaglio process for printing from images engraved into copper or steel plates.

Die Wiping Paper

A type of paper used to clean surface of printing plates in the intaglio process.

Die-Cut

北京28A cut made with a special punching blade instead of with a conventional rotary knife.

Die-Cut Paper

Paper cut with a special punching blade rather than a conventional rotary blade.

Dielectric Papers

A type of paper, which is free of any metallic elements that might conduct electricity.

Dielectric Strength

北京28The degree to which paper resists penetration of an electric charge.

Digest

A common size in publication (about 5 1/2" x 8 1/2" in size).

Digester

A cylindrical pressure vessel used to treat wood chips with chemicals under elevated pressure and temperature to produce pulp for papermaking. Digesters can be stationary or revolving, horizontal or upright, cylindrical or spherical.

Digester House

A section in a pulp mill, which houses digesters.

北京28Digital Printing

北京28A printing process that allows printing directly from electronic images without the need for film or color separations.

Digital Printing Machine

北京28Printing machine that prints direct from a computer data file onto paper, using the same image transfer techniques as are used in copiers and printers.

北京28Digital Printing Paper

北京28Paper or board specially designed to be used in digital printing machines.

Digital Proof

Color separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to color photographic paper creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed.

北京28Dimensional Stability

北京28The degree to which a paper will maintain its size and shape when subjected to changes in moisture content and relative humidity.

Din 6738

An international standard that guarantees the paper for permanence with a life expectancy of at least 100 years.

Dioxin

A carcinogenic contaminant generated when chlorine is used in bleaching wood pulp.

DIP

Deinked Pulp - a pulp produced from deinked wastepaper.

Diploma

A fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas, certificates, and documents. Its main properties are durability and permanence.

北京28Diploma Parchment

Paper made from cotton fibers. It resembles animal parchment and is surface sized with high quality animal glue.

Direct Cooking

北京28Pulping process in which heating is achieved by blowing steam into the cooking liquor.

Directory Papers

北京28A lightweight and uncoated groundwood paper used for printing telephone directories and catalogues.

Dirt

北京28Foreign material, which has a color in contrast to that of the paper. An instrument, The Papric Counter, is used in laboratories to identify dirt specks.

北京28Disc Refiner

北京28A machine, which uses rotating discs or plates for refining pulp during the stock preparation process.

Dished

A pile or stack of paper lying concave rather than flat.

Disperging

北京28Disperging is used in the treatment of recycled fibers. It reduces impurities in recycled paper to such a small size that they are no longer detrimental to paper quality.

Dispersion

北京28The separation of a substance into the smallest possible particles using another substance (the medium). Used in papermaking to homogenize pulp properties and remove impurities.

北京28Display Board

Paperboard used for display advertising.

Display Type

Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page, which attracts attention of the reader.

Dissolving Pulp

A high-purity chemical pulp of special quality. It has a high alpha-cellulose content (usually 90% or more). Dissolving pulp is used for producing acetate and viscose fibers.

Distribution Rollers

In the printing process, the rubber coated rollers responsible for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink drum.

Distributor

A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for resale to end-users.

Doctor

北京28A blade-like device, which scrapes off excess liquid or fibers off a roller to help maintain a smooth surface.

北京28Doctor Blade

1. In papermaking, a device that cleans the surface of paper machine rolls.2. A term in gravure printing which refers to the knife-edge that runs along the printing cylinder. Its function is to wipe the excess ink away from the non-printing areas.

Document Paper

北京28Document paper has a high ageing resistance. It is usually made from chemical pulp and may also contain rags.

Dog Ear

北京28A small fold that occurs on the corner of the paper during the papermaking or converting process.

Dot Gain

A printing problem where dots print larger than desired, creating darker tones, or color imbalances.

Dot Matrix Printing

北京28Impact printing where each character is made up of a pattern of dots synchronized by computer control. During printing the print head strikes against a ribbon to print on the paper surface.

Dots Per Inch (DPI)

A reference for the resolution of a printed or screened image. Higher numbers mean higher resolution or more dots composing an image.

Double Calendered

A type of paper passed through two calenders.

Double Cap

Trade term for size 17" x 28" available in business papers.

Double Coated

A sheet that has been coated twice on the same side. Not to be confused with a paper sheet coated on both sides.

Double Deckle

北京28Machine-made papers having a deckle edge on two edges of the sheet.

Double Fold

北京28Resistance of paper to repeated folding/unfolding. Folding endurance is important for currency, blue print, record papers, ledger, map etc where resistance against repeated folding/unfolding is required.

北京28Double Imprint Unit

Two sets of printing cylinders that permit imprint to be altered as press continues to run at full speed.

北京28Double Sizing

北京28The process of applying size a second time after first sizing has been dried.

Double Wall Corrugated Board

A type of corrugated board, which has two layers of fluting and three facings.

Doubling

The unintentional printing of two images slightly out of register.

Downtime

When a paper machine is stopped for repairs, it is referred as 'down'. Downtime can occur due to mechanical failure, change of grades in production etc.

Drain

Volume of wood removed from the forest in a given time.

Drainage

北京28Removal of water at the paper machine wet-end while the paper sheet is consolidating.

北京28Drainage Foils

北京28Drainage foils are tapered foils placed under the wire at a slight angle so that when the wire runs over them at high speeds, suction is created and the water from the wet stock is separated efficiently.

Draw-Down

北京28A method used by ink makers to determine the color, quality, and tone of ink. The method involves an application of a thin film of ink using a spatula or blade to measure the ink's color shade and characteristics.

Drawing Paper

A good quality, dull-finished paper strong enough to take erasures. They have a low opacity and wash-fast.

Drier

A term that describes additives to ink which speed up the drying process.

Drill

The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.

Drop Out

In printing, halftone with no screen dots in the highlights or background.

北京28Drumhead Manila

北京28A type of rope papers. Usually available in 24" x 36" size.

Dry Coating

A coating method in which a binder is applied to the paper surface followed by dry coating pigment.

Dry Creping

北京28Creping of a paper web when it's dry.

北京28Dry Cylinder Machine

北京28In a dry cylinder machine, pulp is poured onto the surface of the cylinder and the water drains away through the cover on the cylinder.

Dry Finish

北京28Paper and paperboard get a dry finish when calendered without the use of water.

Dry Offset

北京28A method of printing from a relief plate without the use of any fountain solution.

Dry Solids

北京28Dry solids is defined as the mass of dried sample as a percentage of the mass of original sample.

北京28Dry Strength

Mechanical strength of a dry sheet of paper indicated by its mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tearing resistance, and folding endurance.

Dry-end

北京28The part of a paper making machine where the paper passes through steam-heated drying cylinders. The dry end can also consist of calenders, cutters, slitter, and reels.

Dryers

北京28A series of large cylindrical steam-heated rolls that dry the paper web.

Drying Loft

北京28A large airy room in which sheets of handmade paper are hung or laid to dry.

北京28Dual Distributor, Dual House, or Dual Merchant

A paper distribution firm, which deals in fine and industrial papers.

Ductor Roller

北京28The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.

Dull Coated

北京28Paper is said to be dull coated when it registers a gloss test reading of less than 55%. Characteristically, dull coated or finished paper has a smooth surface and is low in gloss. Dull coated paper is also known as dull finish paper.

Dull Finish

北京28Paper is said to be dull coated or matte finish when it registers a gloss test reading of less than 55%. Dull coated papers have a smooth surface a low gloss. Dull coated paper is also known as dull finish paper.

Dummy

A page or a set of pages assembled in the exact position, form and style desired for the finished piece of printed work. Used as a model or sample for the printer.

Duotone

A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo.

Duplex Board

Duplex board used for packaging purposes consists of two layers, mostly made from waste paper pulp.

北京28Duplex Coating

北京28The process of coating both sides of a paper sheet at the same time.

Duplex Cutting

北京28The process of converting a web of paper into sheets on a cutting machine so that two different lengths of sheet can be cut at the same time.

北京28Duplex Paper

北京28Paper which has a different color or finish on each side.

Duplex Paper/Board

北京28Paper or paperboard consisting of two layers of different furnishes composition.

Duplexed

When paper is printed on both sides of the sheet.

Duplicating Stencil Paper

A thin, strong, lightweight paper made from long-fibred stock, suitably impregnated or coated such as with oil. This paper is used for preparation of Stencil.

Duplicator

A machine for making copies with the aid of a specially prepared duplicating master.

Durability

The degree to which paper retains its original qualities.

Dust

Small particles of paper, fibers, or coating materials may arise at calendering, slitting, and sheet trimming.

Dutch

Any deckle edged paper, originally produced in the Netherlands.

Dye Based Ink

Any ink that acquires its color by the use of aniline pigments or dyes.

ECF

北京28Elemental Chlorine Free - papermaking pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine. ECF bleaching process uses chlorine dioxide in combination with oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hydroxide.

ECF Paper

北京28Paper made with ECF wood pulps.

Eco-Label

A label granted to products that pollute the environment less than similar products used for the same purpose.

Edge Chains

北京28Extra chain lines running on the outer edge of short sides of the mould for extra strength.

Edge Crush Test

A test to evaluate the compression strength of containerboard used to manufacture corrugated shipping boxes.

Edge Protectors

A heavy board used to protect the ends of rolls during shipment and storing.

EF

English Finish - A finish between machine-finished and supercalendered papers.

Effluent

The liquid waste of industrial processing. Effluents of the papermaking process usually include a small amount of suspend solids and dissolved chemicals.

Effluent Treatment

北京28Effluent treatment usually consists of two processes: 1) Primary treatment process removes suspended solids from effluent. 2) Secondary treatment process reduces the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity of effluent.

Eggshell Finish

A relatively rough finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by bypassing the calendering process. A special felt is used to mark the surface before the paper is dried.

Elastic Strength

The ability of paper or paperboard to resist stress acting in the plane of the sample.

北京28Electronic Proof

北京28A process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the color separation negatives. The paper is passed through the electrically charged pigmented toners resulting in the finished proof.

北京28Electrostatic Copy Paper

A smooth-finished and medium-weight bond paper made from chemical pulps. This paper is generally treated with a zinc-oxide coating material.

Electrostatic Precipitator

北京28Equipment used to clean up flue and process gases. Removes 99.5-99.8% of dust particles emitted from recovery boilers, lime kilns and bark-fired boilers

Elliptical Dot

Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.

Elmendorf Tear Test

A test to determine a paper’s resistance to tearing.

Embossed Finish

北京28Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling cloth, leather, wood, or other patterns.

Embossing

北京28A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper. Produced on a special embossing machine after the paper has dried to create finishes such as linen.

Emission

北京28Discharge of polluting substances to air, land, or water.

北京28Emulsification

The mixing of two distinct solutions that do not mix such as a fountain solution, which is water-based and ink which is oil based.

Emulsion Coating

Coating of paper with an emulsion containing plastic or resin.

Enamel

A term that describes a glossy coating on paper. Also, a general term for clay coating on papers.

End-Leaf Paper

北京28A strong and fine quality paper used for binding a book's contents to its cover. It can be either plain or coated and sometimes colored or marbled,

Endsheet

Attaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding.

北京28Engine Sizing

北京28Addition of chemicals to papermaking stock to impart water resistance to paper. It is sometimes known as internal sizing.

北京28English Opacity Book

北京28Paper used in books and catalogs when a lightweight paper of high opacity is required. Usually made from chemical wood pulp and fillers, it ensures maximum opacity.

Engraving

Printing by the intaglio process. Ink is applied to the paper under extreme pressure resulting in a printing surface being raised. Uses include fine letterheads and wedding invitations.

Envelope Lining Paper

北京28Tissue paper that decorates and lines envelopes of fine stationery papers.

北京28Envelope Paper

Envelop papers are opaque, writable, and printable and must have a high folding strength. Envelope paper can be made from chemical or mechanical pulps. They can be machine glazed or calendered, white or colored.

北京28Enzyme Bleaching

A bleaching technique in which cooked and oxygen-delignified chemical pulp is treated with enzymes prior to final bleaching. Enzyme bleaching allows pulp to be bleached without chlorine chemicals.

EPA

北京28Environmental Protection Agency.

Equilibrium Moisture Content

The moisture content of paper that has reached a balance with the surrounding atmosphere. Under the equilibrium condition, paper can neither absorb nor release moisture.

北京28Equivalent Weights

A system of comparing papers of different sizes and basis weights. It uses a mathematical equation to compare paper weights with different sizes and basis weights.

北京28Erasability

北京28A quality of paper that assures a clean erasure. Erasability is achieved by excessive pulp refining resulting in firmly bonded fibers and a hard surface.

Esparto

北京28A North African grass, which makes a soft, ink receptive paper sheet. It is also found in Spain.

Etch

北京28The process of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.

Evaporation Plant

Unit used at pulp mills to concentrate spent liquor to make it suitable for burning and subsequent chemicals recovery.

Expansivity

The degree to which paper changes its dimensions for a given change in relative humidity.

Exposure

北京28That stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light sensitive coating.

Extended Cooking

Method of cooking pulp to a low lignin-content. Extended cooking reduces the bleaching chemicals demand.

Extender

A white pigment added to a colored pigment to reduce its intensity and improve its working qualities.

Extrusion

A method of laminating paper and paperboard.

Extrusion Coating

北京28A method of coating a web of paper with resins, plastics, or similar hot-melt compounds.

F&G

A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.

北京28Fabric Press

北京28Fabric press uses absorbent felt to absorb moisture from the sheet in combination with nips that squeeze the water out. The felt must be squeezed dry again before it picks up a new section of sheet.

Facsimile Master

Material consisting of solid or fluid carbon combined with master paper for heat or transfer posting machines.

Fan Fold

Paper folding that looks like an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.

Fanning

Momentary separation of the press sheets by hand riffling so that fresh air is allowed to sweep over the surface of each sheet.

Fast Color

Color that is not affected by light, acids, alkalis or other external stimulus.

FBB

北京28Folding Boxboard - a multi-layer coated board with an outer layer of Kraft pulp and the middle layer of mechanical pulp. It is used primarily for consumer cartons for packaging of dry and moist foods, cigarettes and other consumer products. Also used in the graphic industry for catalogue covers, postcards and folders, etc.

北京28Feather Edge

北京28Edging similar to a deckle edge, a thin rough edge on carbon paper.

Feathering

The tendency of ink to spread along the paper fibers so that the image produced does not have sharp, clean edges.

Featherweight

北京28A term indicating extreme lightness in proportion to bulk. Also used to identify lightweight book papers and thin opaque writing papers; airmail papers.

北京28Featherweight Book Paper

Paper for novels, where good bulk is required for a precise number of pages.

Feed Rollers

北京28Rubber wheels that hold the sheet of paper in position and move it from the feed pile to the grippers.

Feeder

The section of a press, which separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing.

Feel

A term expressing an individual's impression of a paper's finish.

Felt

A woven and endless conveyor belt that receives papers from the Fourdrinier wire and delivers it to the drier. It is traditionally made of wool but frequently of a combination of two or more of the fibers like wool, cotton, and synthetic fibers.

Felt and Wire Sides

北京28Refers to the top and bottom surfaces, respectively, of paper made on conventional Fourdrinier paper machines.

北京28Felt Finish

Surface characteristics of paper achieved by using woven wool or synthetic felts with distinctive patterns to create a similar texture in the finish sheets.

Felt Mark

北京28A mark or pattern on paper or paperboard produced by press or drier felt. The mark may be wanted or unwanted and special effects can be introduced in this way.

Felt Side

The top side of the paper, usually recommended for best printing results. The top side of felt is preferred for printing because it contains more filler.

Felts

A material woven from either cotton or wool with a raised surface, which supports the wet sheet of paper during pressing.

北京28Fermentation

北京28An old method of preparing rags for the beater. In this method, piles of wet rags were allowed to heat up and rot before they were used for papermaking.

Festoon Drying

Drying of paper by festooning it on poles.

Fiber

北京28The slender, thread-like cellulose structures that form a sheet of paper. Fibers used in papermaking come primarily from wood and recovered paper. Cotton is also used to make certain products.

Fiber Loss

北京28Unwanted loss of fibers in pulp and paper processing.

北京28Fiber Orientation

Refers to the alignment of fibers in a paper sheet.

Fiberboard

北京28A type of board made from defibrated wood chips on wet-lap forming machine. Fiberboard is used as a building board.

Fiberline

北京28The machines and process systems involved in converting wood chips into pulp. A typical fiberline steps can include cooking, washing, screening, knot separation, refining, and bleaching.

Fibrillation

A structural change occurring in the walls of chemical pulp fibers during beating. Fibrillation refers to loosening the fibrillae during the mechanical process of beating the fibers in preparation for papermaking.

Fill

The maximum width of paper that can be made on a given paper machine.

Filled Bristol

北京28A board made on a cylinder machine. The middle layer of filled bristols is of different fiber than the outside layers.

Filler

Non-oxidizing clays or minerals added to the pulp to improve paper properties such as opacity and smoothness. Addition of fillers reduces the cost too as fillers are less expensive than fibers.

北京28Filler Content

北京28Ratio of material originating from filler and coating chemicals to original mass of pulp.

Filling

北京28The practice of adding minerals to the pulp furnish in the beater that increases printability and other desirable characteristics of the paper. Also known as loading.

Filling In

A fault in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or halftone dot areas.

Film

北京28Used to make the printing plates with. Output from an image setter or taken with a camera.

Film Coat

Any thinly coated paper stock. Also known as wash coat.

北京28Film Coating

A light film pigmented coating is applied to the paper at the size press of the paper machine to improve the smoothness of uncoated book grades.

Filter Paper

北京28Unsized paper made from chemical pulp. Filtration rate and selectivity are the important requirements for a good performance of filter papers.

Fine Merchant, Fine Paper Distributor

A paper distribution company sells and distributions fine printing papers only.

Fine Paper

北京28Paper usually produced from bleached chemical pulp for printing and writing purposes. Fine papers usually contain less than 10% mechanical pulp.

Finest

Small fragments of fibers produced generally produced during the refining process.

Finish

北京28Finish refers to the surface characteristics of paper. A high finish refers to a smooth surface. A low finish refers to a relatively rough and toothy surface.

Finishing

Processes that occur after the papermaking operations and prior to the shipment of paper from the mill. These processes include supercalendering, slitting, rewinding, trimming, sorting, etc.,

北京28Finishing Broke

Discarded paper resulting from finishing operation such as trimming etc.

Fish Eye

Round, transparent spots on the surface of coated paper or paperboard.

Flag

A paper strip protruding from a roll or skid of paper. May be used to mark a splice in a roll of paper.

Flame Resistant Paper

Flame resistant papers are non-flammable and to a certain extent incombustible too.

Flaps

The closing members of a fiberboard box.

Flat

The assemblage of negatives and positives, which are used as a composite image to create the printing plate.

Flat Form

A completed box, which has not been erected. This is a conventional method of delivering boxes to end users.

Flats

北京28Paper delivered by a paper mill in flat sheets, usually larger than 17" x 22" in size.

北京28Flexographic Printing

北京28A printing process using a rubber or plastic plate with a raised image area. The plate is mounted to a rotary cylinder. When the cylinder is inked, it prints the image onto paper through light pressure.

Flexography

Letterpress printing using relief plates on direct presses. This process of printing uses rubber plates and special aniline inks.

Flint Paper

A high-glaze and brightly-colored paper coated on one side.

Floating Load

北京28Paper loaded into a freight car in a manner that allows it the freedom to shift slightly without getting damaged in transit.

Flocculation

北京28Refers to formation of flocks or fiber bundles.

北京28Flocked Paper

Decorative paper with a velvet-like smooth and unglazed surface.

Flong

Absorbent paperboard, which when impressed and dried becomes a matrix for preparing stereotypes.

Flooding

In printing, when the ink flows onto a printing plate because the ink fountain has been set improperly.

北京28Flotation Deinking

北京28Deinking process for recycled papers in which air is blown into a fiber suspension. Ink particles adhere to the air bubbles and rise to the surface, where they are removed.

Flow

In reference to printing ink, the ability of an ink to spread over the press rollers.

Flue Gas Scrubber

北京28An equipment for removing impurities from flue gases by dissolving them in aqueous solution.

Fluff

北京28Fluff consists mainly of individual fibers, particles of fillers, particles of sizing agents.

Fluff Pulp

Kraft or CTMP pulp with a cotton-like appearance. It is used for absorbent materials such as nappies and feminine hygiene products.

Fluid Ink

Ink with a low viscosity. Also called liquid ink.

北京28Fluorescence

A property of fluorescent dyes, which enhances paper's brightness in normal lighting.

Fluorescent Dye

北京28A dyestuff, which improves the brightness of paper. Also known as Optical Bleaching Agent (OBA).

北京28Fluorescent Paper

北京28Paper with a high reflectance, resulting from colored, light-emitting dyes that reflect white light.

北京28Flush Cover

A bound book or booklet having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.

Fluting

北京28The rippled middle layer in corrugated board, produced generally from recycled fiber.

Flying Pastor

北京28A device used to splice rolls of paper during the converting or printing process without having to stop the equipment.

Foam Spots

北京28Small spots on the finished paper that are a result of foaming during the formation or coating process.

Fodder Pulp

Protein produced from pulp mill spent liquors and sometimes used as animal feeds.

Foil Paper

Paper coated with either aluminum or bronze powder finish, or leaf finish.

Foils

Tapered strips of plastic fitted under the moving wire of a Fourdrinier machine to scrape off excess water for a quicker drainage of water.

Fold

A term used to describe how sheets are folded; single fold, double fold, centerfold, and gatefold.

Fold Marks

A short line printed on business forms indicating where they may be folded.

Folder

北京28A device at delivery end of a press or collator to fold continuous forms.

Folding Boxboard

A multi-layer coated board with an outer layer of Kraft pulp and the middle layer of mechanical pulp. It is used primarily for consumer cartons for packaging of dry and moist foods, cigarettes and other consumer products. Also used in the graphic industry for catalogue covers, postcards and folders, etc.

Folding Bristol

Bristol board with good folding ability and printability.

Folding Endurance

A test used to measure the number of times a strip of paper or board can be bent, creased, and folded before rupture. Folding strength is important in many printing applications such as books, maps, pamphlets, and manuals.

Folio

A ream or sheet in its full size. When used in connection with books, means the sheet has been folded once, producing four pages.

Form Rollers

北京28The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.

Formation

北京28The uniformity of the distribution of fibers in a sheet of paper, which influences the appearance, strength, and mottle of the paper. Formation is judged by transmitting light through the sheet and looking at its structure and degree of uniformity. Paper with good formation prints with less mottling and has more uniform opacity.

北京28Fountain Solution (Dampening Solution)

北京28In lithography, water based chemical solution used to dampen the place and keep non-image areas from accepting ink. Traditionally contained gum arabic, acid, and defoamer.

Four Color Process

北京28The usual process of printing full color photos.

Fourdrinier

北京28A machine that receives the pulp slurry in the papermaking process for removing water from the slurry and transferring the web to the press section of the paper machine. The machine takes its name after the Fourdrinier brothers who financed its early development. The machine was developed by Louis Robert.

Fourdrinier Wire

北京28Continuously traveling and endless metal or plastic mesh belt on which the paper is formed.

Free Pulp

The pulp from which the water drains easily.

Free Sheet

Paper made from chemical pulp and contains no or minimal amount of mechanical pulp. It is generally of a higher quality, a high density, and is less absorbent.

Freeness

The rate at which water drains from the slurry of pulp on the forming section of a paper machine.

Friction Glazed

北京28A high-finish paper produced by passing the web through chilled iron rolls, one large and one small, revolving at different peripheral speeds. The rolling friction between the two rolls produces a highly glazed surface.

Fringe

北京28A halo that appears around halftone dots.

北京28Fugitive Colors

Colors that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light.

Fugitive Inks

北京28Inks which are not permanent, which fade or change color when exposed to light.

北京28Full Body Imprint

Form with no limit on the area to be imprinted.

Full Coated Carbon

北京28Carbon paper coated completely on one surface.

Fully Bleached Pulp

北京28Pulp that has been bleached to the highest brightness attainable (usually > 90 ISO)

Furnish

A mixture of fibers, water, chemicals, and pigments. The furnish used to make paper has about 1% solid material and 99% water.

Fuzz

A term for the fibers that project from the surface of uncoated papers.

北京28Galley Proof

北京28A proof of text copy before it is pasted into position for printing.

Gampi

A bast fiber from the gampi tree used in Japanese papermaking to yield a smooth, strong sheet.

Ganging

北京28The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.

Gathering

北京28Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; collating.

Gelatin

北京28Nitrogenous constituent of skin, bones, and hooves of animals, used as a size to strengthen the surface of the paper.

Genuine Watermark

Watermark made on the paper machine, with a dandy roll.

GIP

北京28Glazed Imitation Parchment - a strong glazed paper made from bleached cellulose pulp.

Glassine

A strong, transparent paper produced by dampening and supercalendering. It is very smooth and glossy on both sides and has resistance to the passage of oils and grease. It is used as envelope windows and as protective wrapping for foods, candies, tobacco products etc.

Glaze

Gloss or polish on a sheet of paper.

Glazed

A type of paper with a glossy surface, applied either during manufacture or later by calendering or plating etc.

Glazed Imitation Parchment

A strong, glazed paper made from bleached cellulose pulp.

Gloss

The property of a surface, which causes it to reflect light specularly. Gloss expresses the amount of directed light that is reflected in a certain direction. Gloss of paper is measured by Gardner Gloss Meter, which measures the reflected light at an angle of 75°.

Gloss Finish

The shiny and highly reflective surface quality of paper achieved by calendering.

Gloss Ink

Quick-drying oil-based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock.

Gloss Mottle

北京28Mottle that is characterized by variation in gloss over the paper surface.

Gold Announcements

A gold colored writing paper used for mail advertisements.

北京28Goldenrod Paper

A specially coated masking paper used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposing onto printing plates.

Grade

北京28Classification of papers to differentiated from each other on the basis of their furnish content, appearance, or their end use.

Grain

Refers to the alignment of fibers in the direction of their flow on the paper machine. Long grain describes fibers running parallel to the longest side of a sheet. Short grain running parallel to the short side. Folding and scoring work best when done in the paper's grain direction. Grain also affects tear strength, stiffness, and dimensional stability.

Grain Direction

Direction in which the fibers of machine-made paper lie due to the motion of the machine. When machine-made paper is moistened, the fibers swell more across their width than along their length, so the paper tends to expand at right angles.

Grain Long

北京28A term used to indicate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper.

Grain Short

Grain short is perpendicular to grain long.

北京28Grained Paper

A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather etc.

北京28Grainless Plates

Offset plates that do not require graining.

Grammage

In metric system, weight (in grams) per square meter of paper or paperboard.

Graphic Paper

北京28A grade of fine paper with a pigmented surface layer, which increases the uniformity of the printing surface and provides improved printing properties. It’s used mainly for the reproduction of illustrations.

Gravure

An intaglio or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are like wells that form the image as paper passes through.

北京28Gravure Paper

Containing mostly mechanical pulp, highly-calendered paper with a high ash content.

Gravure Printing

An intaglio or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are like wells that form the image as paper passes through.

Grease Resistant Paper

A paper having good-to-high resistance to penetration by grease or fats. Grease resistance is either achieved by grinding of the pulp and pore-free web formation or by special additives.

Greaseproof Ink, Coating

Ink or coating that is resistant to the action of fats oils and greases.

北京28Greaseproof Papers

Papers resistant to the penetration of grease; made from heavily beaten chemical pulp or by treating the paper with sulphuric acid.

北京28Green Liquor

北京28The intermediate liquor generated in the Kraft recovery system. Green liquor contains the regenerated sodium sulphide.

Green Paper

Paper, which has not been conditioned.

Grey Balance

The values for yellow, magenta, and cyan that produce a neutral Grey with no dominant hue when printed at a normal density.

Greyboard

Board made of recovered fibers and used for cartons and boxes in various packaging applications.

Grinder

A machine used to prepare mechanical wood pulp. It consists of a revolving grindstone against which the debarked logs are pressed to disintegrate.

Gripper

A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process.

北京28Gripper Edge

北京28The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press.

Gripper Margin

北京28Unprintable back edge of a sheet of paper.

Groundwood

北京28Pulp produced mechanically by grinding logs on a stone. Low cost papers such as newsprint are made by the mechanical pulping process.

Groundwood Mill

An installation for producing mechanical pulp.

Groundwood Paper

A grade of paper made from a furnish containing a large percentage of groundwood pulp.

北京28Groundwood Pulp

北京28Mechanical pulp produced by grinding wood against a grindstone.

GSM

Grams per Square Meter. The standard measurement of the weight of paper.

Guillotine

北京28A device that is used to cut or trim stacks of paper to the desired size. There are three types of guillotine machines - manually operated, electrically powered, and automatic spacing cutters.

Gummed Paper

All papers that include an adhesive on one side of the sheet.

Gumming

北京28The application of gum arabic to the non printing areas of a plate.

Gutter

北京28The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book.

Gypsum

A filler for paper with good retention for color and brightness. Unlike other fillers, it does not reduce the efficiency of internal sizing.

Hairline Register

Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.

Half Stuff

Partially broken or beaten fibers for papermaking.

Halftone

The process of converting continuous tone photographs into dots. A screening process done on a camera at the film stage of the preprinting process.

Halftone Blotting Paper

A type of paper that has been smoothed to give it a suitable printing surface on the top side.

Halftone Paper

北京28A high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.

Handling Damage

北京28Any physical damage to paper, which occurs during storage or shipping of paper.

北京28Handmade Finish

Paper with a rough finish similar to handmade papers.

Handmade Paper

北京28A sheet of paper, made individually by hand, using a mould and deckle. It is defined as a layer of entwined fibers, held together by the natural internal bonding properties of cellulose fibers.

北京28Hard Mixed Paper

北京28A type of recovered paper that includes Kraft paper, corrugated cardboard, and office papers.

Hard Pulp

北京28A term used to describe chemical pulp with a high lignin content.

Hard-sized Paper

Paper that has been treated with a large amount of internal size to increase its resistance to moisture.

Hardwood

Wood from a deciduous broad-leaved tree such as birch, oak. Hardwoods have short fibers. These fibers are used in papermaking to obtain good formation, smoothness, opacity and a good print surface.

Hardwood Chemical Pulp

Chemical pulp made from hardwood.

HC

北京28High Consistency - pulp suspension with a consistency between 18-40%.

Head Margin

北京28That space which lies between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.

Headbox

北京28Located at the wet-end of a paper machine, the headbox delivers a uniform jet of paper slurry.

Headers

北京28Paper discs applied to the ends of rolls for protection.

Heartwood, Corewood

北京28Wood located in the centre of the trunk and often darker in color than the surrounding wood.

Heat Transfer Paper

The paper used in thermal transfer printing (Sublimation printing).

Heatset Offset

Heatset printing where the inks have been printed by web offset lithography.

北京28Hectographic Paper

Also known as duplicating paper.

北京28Hemicellulose

One of the three main constituents of wood, along with cellulose and lignin. Hemicellulose is alkali-soluble, non-cellulosic polysaccharide portion of a wood cell wall.

Hemp

北京28Hemp is related to the banana plant. Its leaf fiber is used in paper making.

Hexenuronic Acid

北京28Acid formed during chemical pulping that reacts with several bleaching chemicals and increases their consumption.

Hickey

北京28A term used to describe the effect that occurs when a spec of dust or debris (dried ink) adheres to the printing plate and creates a spot or imperfection in the printing.

Hi-Fi Paper

A high finish machine-calendered newsprint paper.

High Alpha Cellulose

北京28A pure form of wood pulp, which has about the same longevity as cotton or other plant fibers.

High Bulk Paper

Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight.

High Finish Paper

Machine-calendered newsprint.

High Key Halftone

A halftone that is made utilizing only the highlight tones down through the middle tones.

北京28Hinged Ledger

Ledger paper characterized by a flexible section incorporated into the sheet. This is accomplished by removing some of the fiber on the paper machine, generally by suction.

Hog

A wooden paddle used to keep the fiber in suspension in the vat, later replaced by a mechanical paddle in the base of the vat.

Holdout

The ability of paper or board to resist surface liquid penetration.

Hollow

北京28That space on the spine of a case bound book between the block of the book and the case binding.

Hood

A hood covering the paper machine drying section and designed for moist air removal.

Hot Ground Wood Pulp

Mechanical pulp produced by steam pretreated grinding logs.

Hot Melt

北京28An adhesive used in the binding process, which requires heat for application.

北京28Hot Pressed Paper

北京28Smooth, glazed surface produced by pressing the paper through hot rollers after the formation of the sheet.

北京28Hot Screening

Pulp cleaning at elevated temperature using pressure screens.

House Sheet

A term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.

Hue

北京28The quality of color, which may be characterized by its position in the whole visible spectrum.

HWC

北京28High Weight Coated - a printing paper grade. It's a coated paper produced from mechanical and chemical pulp for magazines, catalogs, and advertising materials.

Hydra Pulper

A vat with a special type of agitator used to rehydrate sheets of dry pulp, pulp up recycled papers, and mix and blend paper stock with water to create the desired slush of pulp stock.

Hydration

Any process of altering cellulose fibers to increase their ability to absorb water. In papermaking, the process of beating the pulp which increases its ability to hold water.

Hydration Refining

北京28Mechanical treatment of papermaking pulp in a beater or refiner to achieve fiber flexibility and fibrillation.

北京28Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching

北京28A bleaching method in which the pulp is bleached in alkaline environment with hydrogen peroxide.

Hygienic Tissue

Toilet tissue, facial wipes, paper towels and similar tissue products that disintegrate in water.

Hygroexpansivity

北京28The expansion or contraction of paper due to a change in moisture content, usually caused by a change in the relative humidity.

Hygrometer

A device that measures the relative humidity of air.

北京28Hygroscopic

Ability to absorb water vapor from the surrounding atmosphere.

北京28Hymnal Paper

北京28A strong, low-finish, lightweight opaque book paper for printing hymnals.

北京28IGT Print Tester (IGT Pick Tester)

A test instrument that measures the resistance of paper to picking or delamination.

Image Area

北京28That portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.

北京28Imagesetter

北京28A high resolution device to output printer's film from a disk. Also a cool yuppy.

Imposition

北京28The correct sequential arrangement of pages that are to be printed, along with all the margins in proper alignment, before producing the plates for printing.

Impregnation

北京28The absorption of an impregnating agent into paper.

Impressed Watermark

北京28A semi-genuine watermark made in the press section using engraved rolls while the web is still wet. It is sometimes known as a "rubber mark”.

Impression

In printing, the pressure of the blanket or plate contacting the paper.

北京28Impression Cylinder

The backing cylinder of a web printing press. It supports the printing of a paper when the image is being pressed down on the paper from a printing plate or an offset blanket.

北京28Imprint Unit

An accessory on web presses used to imprint one side of the web with rubber plates.

Index Board

Woodfree and mechanical board for office and administration purposes.

Index Bristols

北京28Manufactured from chemical wood pulp, index bristols are characterized by strength, ruggedness, and erasability.

Index Card

Paperboard used for recording data in library type of filing systems.

India Tint

北京28The light buff or beige color found in printing papers.

Indicia

Markings pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp.

Indirect Printing

北京28In printing, ink transfer from image carrier to blanket to paper. Offset presses are indirect printing processes.

北京28Industrial Papers

北京28A broad term referring to papers manufactured for industrial uses such as packaging, cardboards, tissue, insulating, and wrapping papers.

Ingrain

Synonym for mottled or granite appearance found in some papers.

Ink Absorption

北京28Extent of ink penetration into paper.

北京28Ink Coverage

北京28The degree of completeness of coverage of a printed surface with the intended ink film.

Ink Fountain

The device, which stores and meters ink to the inking rollers.

Ink Holdout

A paper's ability to hold printing or writing inks on its surface instead of absorbing the inks.

北京28Ink Rub Off

The degree to which ink can be removed from the printed surface by rubbing.

Ink Setting

北京28The inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed.

Ink Tack

The body or cohesiveness of ink. The measure of tack is the force required to split an ink film.

北京28Ink Water Balance

In lithographic printing, the optimal feed of ink and fountain solution to obtain target print density without adversely affecting the white areas.

北京28Inkjet Printing

北京28Printing process of an image or text by small ink particles projected onto the paper surface.

Inkometer

北京28A device used to measure the tack of ink.

Insert

A piece of printed material that is inserted into another piece of printed material such as a magazines.

北京28Insulating Paper

A grade of paper, which is strong, pore-free, and is sometimes impregnated with synthetic resins. Insulating paper is made from chemical pulp. Insulating paper must not contain either fillers, conductive contaminants, salts or acids.

Insulation Board

A bulky, flexible paperboard used in buildings.

Insulation Paper

Cable paper used for insulating electrical conductors.

Intaglio

A method of printing in which special ink is doctored into recessed cells that are engraved or Etched into the printing plate. The ink is transferred to paper while pressed into the plate surface in the printing nip.

北京28Integral Proof

A proof made by exposing each of the four-color separations to an emulsion layer of primary colors. These emulsion sheets are stacked in register with a white sheet of paper in the background.

Integrated Mill

A mill manufacturing complex that produces paper from pulp manufactured at its site.

Interleaving

北京28The insertion of sheets of one kind of paper between sheets of another kind of paper or material.

北京28Internal Bond Strength

北京28The measure of the forces with which fibers are bonded to each other within a sheet of paper. Paper with high internal bonding strength resists picking during the printing process.

北京28Internal Sizing

北京28Internal sizing increases the resistance of the finished paper to the penetration and spreading of aqueous liquids such as inks. Also known as "engine sizing”.

International Paper Size

北京28Also known as ISO sizes. ISO standards are based on a rectangle whose sides have a ratio of one to the square root of 2 (1.414).

北京28Iridescent Paper

A coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl.

ISO 14000

A set of environmental standards developed by ISO.

ISO 9000

A set of quality standards developed by ISO.

ISO 9706

International standard for permanent paper.

ISO Brightness

The brightness of paper and paperboard measured at a wavelength of 457 nanometers under standard conditions.

ISO Size

Standard metric paper sizes as recommended by ISO.

Ivory Finish

Finish obtained by calendering through rolls on which beeswax has been applied.

Jacket

The paper cover sometimes called the "dust cover" of a hardbound book.

Jet Deckle

北京28The edge on a web of paper formed by a stream of water or air in the papermaking process.

Job Lot

Defective or discontinued papers made in small quantities for special orders and sometimes sold at low prices.

Jog

The process of evenly stacking sheets of paper directly on top of one another, either by hand or mechanically.

Jordan

北京28A refining machine invented by J Jordan consists of a conical rotor and housing between which the fiber slurry is passed. Its effect is to shorten the fibers and improve sheet formation.

Jumbo Roll

A large roll of paper coming off the paper machine before cutting.

Jute

A strong, long-fibered pulp made from hemp, used in combination with Kraft pulps for the manufacture of jute tag. The fibers are strong and do not fibrillate or bleach easily.

Jute Board

Paperboard made on cylinder machines with outer plies made from Kraft paper or Kraft waste. The inner ply is usually made from mixed waste papers. It contains no jute fiber.

北京28Kaolin (China Clay)

北京28A mineral (kaolin) used in papermaking as both filler and coating pigment. It consists essentially of hydrated silicate of alumina.

北京28Kappa Number

北京28A measure of the amount of lignin remaining in pulp after cooking.

Kerning

The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.

Kid Finish

An index or bristol finished to resemble kid leather.

Kiln Drying

Drying of green wood in kilns to required end use or trading moisture contents.

Kiss Impression

Printing performed with only slight pressure. Refers to a delicate printed impression, just heavy enough to be seen.

Knife Coating

北京28A coating applied to a web of paper by a doctor blade or knife, which spreads the coating evenly across the web.

Knots

北京28Small lumps of twisted fibers in the pulp.

Knotter

北京28An equipment with vibrating screens for removing knots or lumps from the pulp.

北京28Knotter Pulp

北京28Pulp made from the rejects from chemical pulp screening.

Kozo

北京28The most common fiber used in Japanese papermaking, it comes from the mulberry tree and produces strong, absorbent sheets of paper.

Kraft

The German and Swedish word for "strong". Used in reference to sulphate pulp because of its relative strength.

北京28Kraft Fluting

Fluted paper made from strong Kraft pulp.

北京28Kraft Liner

北京28Kraft liner is used as an outer ply in corrugated board.

Kraft Paper

北京28High-strength paper made almost entirely of unbleached Kraft pulp.

Kraft Process

The predominant method used for converting a wood chip into wood pulp. Kraft pulping process produces a strong pulp needed for high-speed paper machines, presses and converting equipment.

北京28Kraft Pulp (Sulphate Pulp)

Pulp produced by a process where the active cooking agent is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide. The Kraft process is the world's predominant chemical pulping process because of the strength of pulp it produces.

北京28Kraft Sack Paper, Sack Paper

A high-strength paper used for the production of bags and sacks made from sulphate (Kraft) pulp.

Label

A slip of paper or other material to be affixed to a container or article.

北京28Label Paper

One-sided machine-coated or cast-coated paper for making labels.

北京28Laboratory Conditioning

北京28The exposure or seasoning of paper to accurately controlled and specified atmospheric conditions in the test laboratory, so that its moisture content is in equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere.

Lacquer

北京28A solution in an organic solvent of a natural or synthetic resin. Application of lacquer gives papers a greater gloss and stiffness.

Laid

The finish imparted by a dandy roll that impresses the paper during manufacture to produce a permanent watermark. The wires, which produce the laid effect, are situated parallel on the dandy roll.

Laid Finish

A parallel lined paper that has a look of handmade papers.

Laid Lines

Close light lines in laid paper formed by the laid wires of the laid mould or dandy roll.

Laid Paper

Paper with a prominent pattern of ribbed lines in the finished sheet.

Laminate

北京28Material used to bond together two or more layers of paper or paperboard.

Laminated Paper

Paper formed by bonding a layer of paper to an another layer, which may be a sheet of paper, metal or plastic.

Laser Engraving

A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper.

Laser Paper

Paper that has been engineered for optimal performance in xerographic or laser-based imaging devices.

Laser Printing

北京28Xerographic printing where a modulated laser ray is projected on to a photoconductive cylinder or belt by a rotating mirror. The laser serves to produce the electrostatic latent image, which is developed with toners.

Latex

A water dispersion of high polymers from natural or synthetic rubber. Used in paper manufacturing for coating, adhesive, and as a barrier.

Leaders

The dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next.

Leaf Stamping

A metal die, either (flat, or embossed).

Leaves

北京28Individual sheets of paper.

Ledger Paper

A grade of business paper generally used in accounting for keeping records. It is similar to bond paper in its erasure and writing characteristics.

北京28Letterpress Printing

北京28A printing process in which ink is applied to paper, paperboard, or film from raised portions of printing plates or type.

北京28Lightfastness

The rate at which a pigment or colored paper fades in sunlight.

Light-Sheet Interaction

When light falls on any material, a part of it is reflected, another part is absorbed and the rest is transmitted through the body of the material. In case of paper, only the reflected and transmitted fractions are of importance.

北京28Light-Weight Coated Paper

北京28Paper produced from mechanical and chemical pulp and coated to provide a high-quality printing surface. LWC papers are used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials.

Lightweight Coating

北京28Coating applied at a coat weight of 7-10 g/m2 on one or both sides of the paper.

Lightweight Paper

北京28Paper manufactured in weights below the minimum basis weight considered as standard for that grade.

Lignin

One of the three main constituents of wood, along with cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Lignin acts as the cementing agent in wood, binding the cellulose fibers together and lignin is largely responsible for the strength and rigidity of plants.

Lime Kiln

An important section of a Kraft mill’s chemical recovery system. Lime sludge (calcium carbonate) is burnt in the lime kiln to produce lime.

北京28Lime Sludge

Sludge of calcium carbonate (CaCo3) formed during the preparation of white liquor in the chemical pulping process.

Line Art

Black and white illustration, with no continuous tones (or greys).

北京28Linear Laid Paper

北京28A watermarked sheet with lines to guide the user.

Linen

北京28Cuttings and threads of linen cloth used for the manufacture of high-quality rag content paper.

Linen Finish

A paper surface design made by embossing the paper with a linen cloth pattern.

Liner

北京28Packaging board used as a surface layer on corrugated board.

Linerboard

The grade of paperboard used for the exterior facings of corrugated board. Used in the manufacture of corrugated and solid fiber shipping containers, linerboard is made predominantly on a Fourdrinier machine. It is used by the packaging industry as a facing material for containers.

Lint

The material removed from paper due to linting.

Linters

Linters are the short fibers left on the cotton seed after the longer fibers have been removed. The fibers are cleaned and processed into pulp sheets.

Liquid Packaging Board, Milk stock

Plastic-coated board used for the packaging liquids, such as milk and juice.

北京28Lithocoated Paper

A paper that is coated with a special water-resistant material, which is able to withstand the lithographic printing process.

Localized Watermark

北京28Achieved by placement of design on the dandy roll to leave a watermark at the same position on each sheet after cutting.

北京28Loft Dried Papers

A form of air drying where paper is festooned on poles to dry without tension.

Long Fiber Pulp

A general term given to pulp produced from softwoods such as pine.

Long Life Paper

Paper made in accordance with ISO standards (ISO 9706) to achieve the characteristics of permanence.

Longfold

北京28A lengthwise fold in the direction of the grain.

Look-through

The appearance of Paper when held up against the transmitted light. It reveals whether the paper formation is even and uniform.

Low Finish

Paper with by low light reflectance. Low-finish papers have low or no glaze or gloss.

LPB

北京28Liquid Packaging Board - plastic-coated board used for the packaging liquids, such as milk and juice.

LWC

Light-Weight Coated Paper - paper produced from mechanical and chemical pulp and coated to provide a higher quality printing surface. LWC papers are used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials.

M

A symbol normally used to designate 1,000 sheets or two reams of paper.

M Weight

北京28The weight of 1000 sheets of a given size of paper.

Macerate

北京28Bruising or fibrillation of fibers during the beating or refining process.

Machine Calender

A stack of highly-polished cast-iron rolls at the dry end of the paper machine.

Machine Clothing

北京28Fabrics of various types employed on a paper machine to carry the paper web forward. Forming fabrics, press felts, and dryer fabrics are examples of paper machine clothing.

北京28Machine Coated

北京28Paper that has been coated either on one or both sides during the papermaking process.

Machine Creping

Creping of paper on Yankee paper machine. The paper is removed from the Yankee roll by a doctor blade.

Machine Deckle

北京28The width of paper web as it leaves the wet-end of the paper machine.

北京28Machine Direction

北京28The direction in which a majority of fibers tend to orient themselves. More specifically, machine direction is the direction of travel of the forming fabric on paper machine. Machine direction is also known as grain direction.

Machine Dried

The process of drying the paper web on a paper machine rather than drying it in the air after its removal from the machine.

北京28Machine Fill

The maximum possible width of paper machine taken up for making paper. For economic reasons, it should approach as far as possible -- to the maximum trimmed width of the machine. Machine fill is also known as deckle fill.

Machine Finish

Paper finish that is obtained while the paper is on the paper machine as opposed to the finish achieved by some post-machine process.

Machine Finished

北京28Mechanical treatment of paper on the paper machine to improve the surface properties of the paper.

北京28Machine Glazed

北京28Paper made on a Yankee machine that has a glossy finish on one side and a rough finish on the other.

Machine Stack

Machine stack is an assembly of rolls for calendering of paper on the paper machine.

Machine Wire

北京28A filtration device cum conveyor belt that separates water from the furnish and carries the paper web from the forming zone to pressing zone of the paper machine.

Machine-Made

Paper produced on a completely automatic paper machine, which forms, presses, and dries the paper sheet.

Magazine Paper

北京28Light weight coated (LWC) or supercalendered paper for printing magazines. The selection of the magazine printing paper is mainly dependent on the print run and the demands on the print quality.

Magnetic Black

北京28Black pigments containing black iron oxides, used for magnetic ink character recognition.

Make-Ready

北京28Paper that is used in the set-up process of the printing press before the printing run actually starts.

Making Order

Making order is the quantity of paper specially ordered from a mill by the customer. Paper is custom-made to meet the buyer's specifications. A minimum order quantity is required for placing this type of order.

北京28Managed Forests

北京28This term appears to be used interchangeably with sustainable forests.

Manifold Form

Refers to business forms with several parts interleaved with carbon paper.

Manifold Paper

A low caliper bond paper with glazed or unglazed finish used for making carbon copies.

Manila

北京28A color or finish similar to that achieved by making paper from manila hemp stock, also known as 'abaca' plant.

Manilas

High-strength papers and paperboard used for making tags, high-strength cartons, etc.

Map Paper

Paper made from cotton fiber or chemical wood pulps or a mixture of both. Map papers are required to have high wet-strength, high opacity, good finish, and printability along with high folding endurance.

Marble Paper

A type of paper that has a surface pattern resembling to marble. Marble paper is used as end leaves in books.

Marbling

北京28A process in which strongly stained fibers are added to the stock to give the paper a marbled appearance.

Mark Reading

Optical machine reading of vertical bars, which have been manually introduced.

北京28Marked Stand

北京28A forest area marked for cutting.

Marked Standing Reserve

北京28Estimated volume of wood marked for cutting but not yet felled.

北京28Market Pulp

Pulp produced for sale on the open market to paper mills, as opposed to that produced for own consumption in an integrated or affiliated mill.

Marking

In forestry, marking refers to the tree that is to be cut down.

Mask

北京28The blocking out of a portion of the printing plate during the exposure process.

北京28Masking Paper

An orange-colored, coated paper (opaque) for use in stripping negatives from which a plate will be exposed.

Matt Finish

北京28A dull-finish paper and paperboard.

Matte

北京28A type of paper with low gloss or luster. This type of paper goes through minimum or no calendering.

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)

北京28MDF is used in the furniture industry is made from mechanical pulp after the refining process.

北京28Mechanical Paper

The paper that contains mechanical pulp, thermomechanical pulp (TMP), or chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) and sometimes chemical pulp.

北京28Medium-Weight Coated Paper (MWC)

Medium-weight coated paper - A type of paper used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials produced from mechanical and chemical pulp.

Merchant

北京28A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for resale to end-users.

Merchant's Brand

A brand name owned by a paper merchant or converter. It is also referred to as private brand.

北京28Merchant's Stock Order

北京28Paper bought by a merchant for his inventory rather than for immediate sale to an end-user.

Metallic Papers

A type of paper, which has a special coating that, allows indelible marks to be made on paper's surface with a metal point or stylus.

MF

Machine Finished - A type of paper, which is calendered on the paper machine to impart it smoothness and gloss.

MG

Machine Glazed - A type of paper that has a glossy finish on one side produced by a Yankee dryer.

北京28MG Or Yankee Machine

北京28MG or Yankee machine has a single highly-polished steam-heated drying cylinder. Paper web adheres to the cylinder as it dries and receives a smooth surface on the cylinder side of the paper

MG Paper (Mono Glazed Paper)

A type of paper that has a glossy finish on one side produced by a Yankee dryer.

Mica Paper

北京28A highly-sized paper that has been coated with ground particles of mica. Base stock is made from chemical wood pulp.

MICR Paper

A high-quality bond paper with good surface properties and dimensional stability.

Micro-Creping

A method of improving the paper extensibility by pressing a wet mesh against the paper web.

Micrometer

A device for measuring the thickness or caliper of paper.

Mil

A measurement of thickness equal to one thousandths of an inch (1 mil = 0.001 inch.)

北京28Milk stock (LPB or Liquid Packaging Board)

A plastic-coated paperboard used for the packaging liquids, such as milk and juice.

Mill Board

北京28A heavyweight board, which is hard, flat, and nonwrapping. Mill board is used in book binding and box making and it is made on a wet machine using fiber refuse, wastepaper, screenings, and mechanical wood pulp.

北京28Mill Bristol

北京28Printing bristols made on a cylinder machine.

Mill Count

北京28A term used by paper merchants to indicate that the requested shipment of paper, shipping directly from the mill to the customer, has been counted by the mill only, and that the merchant has not recounted it.

Mill Cut

A term used to distinguish between the cut edge made by the machine slitter or cutters as opposed to the cut edge made by the trimmer. Cut made by a trimmer is smoother and more accurate.

Mill Direct

It refers to paper that is sold and delivered directly to the end-user from the mill. The sale does not involve paper merchant or distributor.

Mill Edge

Refers to the slightly rough edge of untrimmed papers.

Mill Line

北京28A line of papers (brands) that is owned by the mill and not the merchant.

北京28Mill Net Price

Mill Net Price = (Transaction Price) - (Delivery Cost).

Mis-register

The appearance of a printed image out of its correct position

Mitsumata

A bast fiber used in Japanese papermaking that yields a soft, absorbent, and lustrous quality. The fibers are fine and relatively short.

Mixed Paper

北京28A term used in paper recycling. It refers to a mix of various grades of papers such as cartons, old mail, magazines, office papers, etc.

MOCR

北京28An abbreviation for Magnetic/ Optical Character Recognition. MOCR refers to papers designed to perform in both OCR and MICR applications.

Moiré

In printing, an undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens.

Moisture Content

This is the amount of moisture contained by paper, expressed as a percentage of its total weight. Average amount ranges from 4-7%. Uniform moisture is a necessity in all grades of paper. The amount of moisture in a sheet of paper affects basis weight, printability, physical strength, and runnability.

北京28Moistureproof

北京28The ability of paper and paperboard to resist the penetration of water vapor.

Molleton

A cotton fabric used on the dampening rollers of a printing press.

Mottle

Refers spotty or uneven ink absorption.

Mottled Finish

北京28A paper appearance, which is characterized by glossy and dull spots on a printed sheet.

北京28Mottled Paper

Made by adding some amounts of heavily-dyed fibers to the stock of colored paper. It is referred to as granite paper.

Mould

A tool for handmade papermaking. It is a flat screen that filters fibers through it to form the sheet.

北京28Mould-made Paper

北京28A sheet of paper that looks like a handmade paper but is actually made on a slowly-rotating cylinder mould.

北京28Mullen Tester

A instrument for testing the bursting strength of paper.

Multi-Ply

A paper or paperboard made up of two or more layers.

Multiply Board Machine

A machine on which a number of plies of paper can be combined to produce a thick cardboard.

Municipal Solid Waste

北京28Municipal solid wastes are the waste product collected as garbage. It usually consists of 30% paper.

MWC

Medium Weight Coated - A type of paper used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials produced from mechanical and chemical pulp.

Narrow Roll

Small width rolls, which require off-machine rewinding.

北京28Natural Colors

北京28Colors containing little or no coloring chemicals.

Natural Durability

Natural resistance of wood to attack by decay fungi, insects, and marine borers.

Natural Papers

北京28Papers that have a color similar to that of wood.

NBHK

Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft - A variety of market pulp, produced mainly from birch Trees.

NBSK

Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft - A variety of market pulp, mainly produced from spruce trees in Scandinavia, Canada, USA, and Russia. NBSK is the industry's benchmark grade of pulp for pricing and inventory data.

NCG

Non Condensable Gas. Odorous discharges from mill processes that in previously were vented to the atmosphere. Today, NCGs are collected and disposed of to meet environmental regulations and to stop the nuisance role these gases play with surrounding communities.

NCR Paper

A type of paper coated with carbonless materials for creating duplicate copies.

Net Weight

北京28The weight after the deduction of tare weight or waste weight.

北京28Newspaper, Newsprint

北京28Unsized and uncoated paper manufactured mainly from mechanical and increasingly waste paper pulps. Newsprint is a machine-finished or calendered printing paper (grammage: 40-52g/m2).

Ninepoint

北京28Paperboards used as the fluted component for manufacturing multi-ply combined board or wrapping.

Nip

A point where two rolls come in contact with each other.

北京28No.1 Manila

北京28A type of paper, which is pale and straw-colored and is made from chemical wood pulps.

Nominal Weight

The basis weight of the paper at which the paper is billed.

Non-Coated Paper

北京28Paper treated in a size-press or pigmented paper where the coat weight is less than 10g.

Non-impact Printing

Describes a segment of printers, such as ink-jet, laser, thermal or electrostatic, that creates images without needing to strike the page.

Non-Integrated Mill

Paper mills that do not produce its own pulp and buy the pulp from open market for meeting their papermaking needs.

Non-Wood Pulp

Pulp made from materials other than wood, for example grasses, straws, bagasse, etc.

Nonwovens Fabric

北京28A cloth-like material made from natural and synthetic fibers.

Nordic Swan

北京28An eco-label applied to papers produced by Scandinavian pulp and paper mills that have low sulphur emissions.

北京28Novel Paper

A high-bulk paper with a rough finish.

NOX

Nitrogen Oxide. A major component of gaseous emissions from a boiler or lime kiln.

NSSC

Neutral Sulphite Semi Chemical Pulp - A semi-chemical pulp produced by cooking woodchips in a neutral sulphite solution.

Oblong

北京28A term used to describe printed books, catalogs etc., that are bound on their shorter side; also referred to as album bound.

OCC

北京28Old corrugated containers.

OCR

北京28OCR stands for "Optical Character Recognition", a technology to digitize and "read" printed text and characters.

OCR Paper

北京28A high-quality woodfree paper suitable for optical scanning. OCR paper should have good surface properties and dimensional stability .

OD

Oven Dry (also known as bone dry) - Weight of a paper specimen when dried to constant weight in an oven at the temperature of 105 +/-2 oC.

Odd

Papers that are not of standard sizes, weights, finishes, or colors.

Odd Sizes

Non-standard paper size.

Offcut

北京28Paper sheets remaining after standard size sheets have been cut.

Office Paper

北京28A type of uncoated printing and writing paper produced from bleached chemical pulp with little or no mechanical pulp.

Off-machine Coating

Coating of paper on a separate coating machine. The coating is not applied on the paper machine and the coating machine can be in the same or in a different location.

Off-machine Creping

北京28A method in which paper is creped in a separate operation rather than on the Yankee machine.

Offset

An indirect printing method in which the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket, which receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper. It is the most commonly used printing method.

北京28Offset Blanket

A covering for a cylinder on a printing machine for accepting the ink and transferring it to the printing surface.

北京28Offset Gravure

北京28An offset process involving multiple transfers between the gravure plate, the plate cylinder, and a solid rubber plate.

Offset Paper

A type of uncoated book paper, which is manufactured specifically for use on offset printing presses. Offset papers should be pick resistant.

北京28Offset Press

北京28Printing press using an offset method where the image is transferred from the plate cylinder onto paper via a blanket.

OMG

Old magazines.

One-time Carbon

北京28A light-weight paper coated only on one side with carbon. This type of paper is used in business forms.

Onionskin

A thin, light-weight paper used for typing with carbon paper.

On-machine

北京28Refers to processes such as calendering or coating that are carried out on a paper machine.

北京28On-machine Coating

Coating of paper on a paper machine and not as a separate operation. In this case, the coating equipment is an integral part of the paper machine.

ONP

北京28Old newspapers.

Opacimeter

An instrument that is used to measure paper's opacity.

Opacity

The ability of a sheet of paper to prevent light transmission through it. High opacity is essential for a paper intended for duplex printing (printing on both sides of paper), or for intensive color printing on one side of the sheet. Opacity increases with increase in grammage of sheet. Addition of fillers, dyestuff, or pigment also increases opacity of paper. However, beating, pressing or calendering of paper decreases it opacity.

Opaque

A paper property that prevents the transmission of light through the paper sheet.

Opaque Ink

Ink that completely covers any ink under itself.

北京28Operating Efficiency

The ratio of saleable tones manufactured to the maximum possible capacity of the paper machine.

北京28Operating Rate

The ratio of actual days of machine operation to the days available.

Opposite Dimension

北京28Dimension of a sheet of paper at right angles to the machine or grain direction.

Optical Brightener

北京28Fluorescent dyes added to paper to enhance the brightness. Fluorescent dyes absorb ultraviolet light and re-emit it in the visual spectrum.

Optical Characteristics

Characteristics of the appearance of paper or paperboard. The important optical characteristics are brightness, opacity, and gloss.

Optical Density

北京28The intensity of color or the printed image.

Optical Scanner

An Input device that converts characters to machine codes.

北京28Orthochromatic

北京28A light sensitive surface that is sensitive to all colors except red.

OSB

Oriented Strand Board - directionally formed particleboard of cross-bonded plies. OSB is a substitute for plywood used in buildings.

OTC Paper

北京28One-time Carbonizing - Carbon paper that produces one copy only as in case of receipts.

OTD

北京28Old telephone directories.

Out Turn Sheet

北京28A sheet of paper that serves as a reference for the mill or client.

Outdoor Poster Board

A strong paperboard that can resist weather conditions and is waterproof. It is primarily used for outdoor displays and posters.

北京28Out-of-square

Paper that has been trimmed improperly causing its corners to be more or less than 90 degrees, which leads to difficulties in the printing process and results in misregister of the printed piece.

Outsides

北京28A lower quality paper used on the bottom and top sides of a ream to protect the better quality paper inside.

Outthrow

Material that must be removed from paper before the paper is recycled or repulped.

Oven Dry

Weight of a paper specimen when dried to constant weight in an oven at the temperature of 105 +/-2oC.

Overhang Cover

北京28A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.

北京28Overprinting

北京28Printing done on an area that has already been printed.

Overrun

北京28Quantity of sheets printed over the ordered number of copies.

Oversize

Paper manufactured wider than the final size to permit trimming to the desired size.

北京28Oxygen Bleaching

北京28A method of reducing the lignin content of pulp by using oxygen gas in an alkaline environment. The pulp is subsequently bleached in 4 to 5 stages.

Ozone Bleaching

A method of reducing the lignin content of pulp by using ozone. Ozone allows bleaching the pulp to a high brightness without the use of chlorine chemicals.

Pad

北京28A solid fiberboard or corrugated sheet used for extra protection or for separating articles when packed for shipment.

Page Makeup

The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.

Pages Per Inch (PPI)

Number of papers sheets in a inch-thick stack of paper. This term used frequently in book production.

Pallet

北京28A platform used to facilitate the movement of paper in storage or transit, which can be moved by a lift truck. Pallets are made up of wood, paperboard, or plastic.

北京28Panchromatic

北京28Films and other photographic materials those are sensitive to all colors.

Panel

北京28A panel is a ‘face’ or ‘side’ of a box.

Paper

北京28A web of cellulose fibers, bound together by interweaving and by the use of bonding agents. Paper is used for writing, printing, wrapping, packaging, decorating, wiping etc.

Paper Foil

A paper laminated with metal foil.

Paper Grade

北京28Papers manufactured to fit within a group of papers. Paper is classified into different grades according to the end use, the pulp type, and the treatment of the paper. Each grade of paper uses essentially the same type of fiber, colors, additives etc.

北京28Paper Merchant

北京28A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for resale to end-users. Merchants usually warehouse the products and then sell it to end-users.

北京28Paper Micrometer

An instrument used for measuring the thickness of paper.

北京28Paper Stock

A slurry of pulp fibers, water, additives, chemicals, and dyes that is pumped onto the papermaking machine to form paper.

Paperboard

北京28A generic term that refers to high-grammage and high-caliper papers. It is intended to be a rigid, durable form of paper, often used in packaging. Some examples include cereal boxes, shoe boxes, folding cartons, setup boxes for jewelry, milk and juice cartons, etc.

Papeterie

北京28A high-grade soft paper used greeting cards and stationery.

Papyrus

An ancient writing material made from the stem of the papyrus plant. The word ‘paper’ is derived from papyrus.

Parchment

A type of paper that resembles animal skin. It is used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand. Parchment paper has a high resistance to the penetration of grease.

Parchmentization

A method of treating a paper sheet with sulphuric acid to make it greaseproof

Parent Roll

A roll from the paper machine, which is later slit into smaller rolls.

Parent Sheet

北京28A sheet of paper, which is larger than the cut stock of the same paper.

Paris White

A pure form of calcium carbonate.

Particulates

Airborne impurities present in gaseous emissions such as lime, soot, calcium carbonate etc.

北京28Paste Drier

北京28Compounds used for enhancing drying of printing inks.

Paste Ink

北京28An ink with a high level of viscosity.

Pasteboard

A general term for cardboard formed by pasting layers of pulp board together.

Paster

北京28A unit that pastes sheets of paper to produce pasted paper grades.

Patent Coated

Paperboard lined on one or both sides with white or colored fibers to improve the surface. Such board is manufactured on a multi-cylinder machine.

北京28Pattern Carbon

Carbon paper that has its coating applied in a special way. Pattern coating is applied by a process similar to printing than coating.

Pattern Paper

北京28A type of high-strength paper used by designers and tailors for making patterns.

Pebbling

北京28Pebbling is a process, which imparts a grainy surface to finished paper. Pebbling is done after when the paper has been manufactured.

Peeling

北京28Peeling or scuffing is the surface scaling on the sheet of paper.

Perfect Binding

A binding method used to put together a large number of pages into a book form by a flexible adhesive. For example, most phone books are perfect bound.

Perfecting Press

Perfecting press or a perfector is a printing press that prints on the both sides a sheet of paper in a single pass.

北京28Perforating

北京28A process done during or after printing to punch small holes in the paper.

Permanence

Permanence refers to paper's ability to maintain physical properties with time, such as brightness, strength, color, and folding endurance. Prolonged exposure to humidity, light, and adverse temperatures affect the permanence of paper.

北京28Permanent Paper

A paper that can resist large chemical and physical changes over time. This type of paper is made from bleached chemical pulps and is generally acid-free, neutral, or alkaline sized. It may contain calcium carbonate as a filler.

Permeability

北京28The ability of paper to allow passage of a gas, liquid or vapor through it.

Pernicious Contraries

北京28Foreign material in waste paper that is difficult to detect and which might cause damage to the papermaking equipment.

Peroxide Bleaching

北京28A method of bleaching pulp with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to remove lignin. Peroxide bleaching avoids or reduces the chlorine dioxide demand.

pH

A measure of acidity, neutrality, or alkalinity of materials such as paper and printing inks. On a scale of 0 to 14, a pH of 7 is neutral. Acids a have pH value below 7 while alkalis a have pH value above 7 (up to 14).

北京28pH Neutral Paper

北京28Paper made from a pulp having a pH of 6.5 to 7.

Phenolic Resin Impregnated Paper

北京28Paper saturated with phenolic resin and used as a binder for cores and sand moulds.

Photographic Paper

北京28A dimensionally stable, chemically-neutral paper with wet-strength properties which is used as a base paper for photographic papers.

北京28Photosetting

北京28The process of composing text matter directly onto a photographic film or other light sensitive material.

北京28Phthalocyanine

北京28A pigment used for manufacturing the cyan ink.

PIA

Printing Industry of America.

Picker

北京28A person who examines the finished paper for defects in it.

Picking

北京28The release of fibers, fines or coating flakes from the paper surface during papermaking or printing. Picking occurs during printing when ink tack is greater than the surface strength of paper.

Picking Resistance

北京28Ability of a paper surface to resist picking by tacky inks during the printing process.

Pick-Up

北京28The roll, which lifts the paper web off the wire before the pressing section.

Pigment

Mineral and inorganic compounds used to coat paper to enhance its surface properties.

北京28Pigmentizing

Coating of paper with pigments to reduce surface porosity and increase opacity.

Piling

The build-up of material from paper on the calendar roll or printing blanket.

PIMA

Paper Industry Management Association.

Pinfeed

北京28A device that controls flow of paper into a machine by engraving pins.

Pinholes

Any small holes through paper or coating extending mainly through the stock; they are of pinpoint size.

Pitch Holes

Pitch holes are caused by pitch plugging the forming fabric at the wet-end of paper machine.

Planned Cut

The volume of wood that can be felled in one year.

Plasterboard

北京28A type of board, which has a layer of gypsum in center and the outer layers made up of board. Plasterboard is used in the building industry.

北京28Plastic Comb

北京28A method of binding books where the holes are drilled close to the spine and a comb-like plastic device is inserted to hold the pages together.

Plastic Laminated Paper

北京28Paper are laminated with plastic and used as a cover paper due to its strength.

Plasticizer

北京28An additive that adds flexibility, softness, and adhesion to printing inks.

Plate

Any material used to make a printed impression for making multiple copies of the image. It is also known as printing press.

Plate Cylinder

The cylinder on a printing press on which the printing plate is fixed.

Plate Finish

An extremely smooth finish achieved by calendaring the paper web.

Plate Glazing

A process of producing a smooth surface on handmade paper sheets by placing them between polished plates of zinc or copper.

Plate Paper

北京28A type of paper used for copperplate printing.

北京28Plate Wiping Paper

A type of paper used as a wiping cloth by engravers.

Plater

北京28An equipment of cold iron rolls that imparts a high finish to paper.

Ply

北京28A single layer of paper. On multi-cylinder board machines, several plies of paper are pasted together to form the paperboard.

北京28Point (Mil)

A measurement unit equal to one thousandth of an inch (0.001"). Point is used as measurement unit to express the thickness of paper.

Pop Test

The Mullen test, which measures the bursting strength of paper. The term became popular because paper makes a popping sound when tested for bursting strength on Mullen tester.

Porosity

A structural property of paper, which refers to resistance of paper to air permeation. In printing, high porosity is needed in offset papers to decrease the ink consumption.

Postcard

Generally uncoated paper, which is used for the production of postcards.

Post-consumer Waste

Recovered paper, which has gone through the consumer lifecycle before being recycled. Examples include computer printouts, tabulating cards, old newspapers, office waste, and milk cartons.

Poster Paper

A type of paper made from mechanical pulp with a high filler content. Poster paper is made weather resistant by sizing. It is used for outdoor advertising.

Potcher

A series of beaters used in washing and pulp preparation when esparto is used as a raw material.

北京28Preconditioned Paper

北京28Paper manufactured to the specifications of relative humidity.

Pre-consumer Waste

Unprinted offcuts from printers and converters that are then formed into recycled pulp. Examples include envelope clippings and printing press waste.

Pre-press

All printing operations prior to presswork. Pre-press processes include design and layout, typesetting, graphics arts photography, image assembly, and plate making.

Pre-print

北京28Linerboard that is printed and rewound prior to the manufacture of combined board. Linerboard is used to make high quality corrugated boxes.

Press

北京28A set of rolls on a paper machine through which the paper passes to facilitate the removal of water from the web.

北京28Press Proof

Press sheets taken from the production run to check the image, tone, and color before final printing.

Press Run

The quantity of prints for a given job.

北京28Press Section

The section of a paper machine just after the Fourdrinier table. It squeezes the wet paper web under high pressure to remove water.

Pressboard

Pressboard is manufactured on a wet machine to make a uniformly thick and dense paperboard. It should have excellent ply adhesion property.

Presse Pâté

A machine identical in design to the wet-end of a Fourdrinier paper machine. It is used to turn pulp into sheets before its transportation to another mill for making into the final paper.

北京28Pressing Papers

北京28Rag and rope based papers and paperboards used for pressing woolen cloth.

Pressmark

The design impressed onto the web of paper by means of a rubber collar carrying the design.

Pressroom Conditioning

Conditioning of paper in pressrooms to 45% RH in order to have the pressroom RH in equilibrium with the paper RH to minimize curl and associated defects.

Pressure-Sensitive Paper

北京28A type of paper that is coated on one or both sides with adhesive. This adhesive is activated by pressure and forms a bond with the receiving surface. It is used to manufacture labels and tapes.

北京28Pressurized Groundwood Pulp (PGW)

A type of mechanical pulp produced by treating logs with steam before defibration against a grindstone.

北京28Primary Colors

The four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow, and black.

北京28Primary Fiber (Virgin Fiber)

北京28Papermaking wood fibers that have never been used before to make paper.

Print Gloss

The property of a printed surface to reflect light specularly which impart the surface shiny appearance.

Print Mottle

A type of print defect. A random uneven appearance in the print density, colors, or gloss of a printed sheet of paper.

Print Quality

The degree to which a print's quality approaches the standard or the desired results.

Printability

Ease with which paper can be printed to standards with the least amount of wastage.

北京28Printing Ink

北京28Inks containing pigments and/or dyes to produce images.

北京28Printing Paper

Papers specially designed for printing, for example, newsprint and magazine papers The desired qualities are uniform and fast ink trapping and drying as well as the dimensional stability of paper.

Process Flowchart

北京28A layout showing process equipment and materials flow.

Process Printing

Printing from two or more half tones to produce intermediate colors and shades.

Progressive Proofs

Proofs made from the separate plates of a multi-plate-printing project.

Proof

A pre-production print to check the accuracy of lay-out, content, tone, and color.

Pulp

北京28Pulp is a chemically or mechanically produced raw material used in the production paper and paperboard.

Pulp Board

北京28Pulp board is used for index cards. It is also known as printer's board.

Pulper

A unit for defibrating pulp and paper machine broke. Pulpers have a cylindrical vat in which a rotor separates the fibers and suspends them in water.

Pulping

北京28A process of transforming wood chips or non-woods into pulp for papermaking.

Pulpwood

北京28Wood suitable for producing papermaking pulp. Pulpwood is usually not of sufficient standard for saw-milling.

北京28Puncture Resistance

北京28Resistance of paper or paperboard to perforation.

PWG

Pressurized Groundwood Pulp.

北京28Pyroxylin Paper

Paper coated with pyroxylin lacquer to make it water resistant and glossy.

北京28Quality Control

北京28The process of testing representative paper samples to check for consistency or quality.

北京28Rag Content

北京28Rag content in paper describes the amount of cotton fibers relative to the total amount of material used in the pulp.

Rag Paper

北京28Papers with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers. Rag paper is used for ledgers and other products where permanence of records in important.

Rag Pulp

北京28Papermaking pulp made from cotton fibers or cotton linters.

北京28Ragged Left

The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.

Ragged Right

The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.

Rags

北京28The principal raw material used in the papermaking process in yesteryears.

北京28Railroad Board

北京28A thick and coated paper used for signs.

北京28Railroad Manila

北京28A type of writing paper containing a substantial amount of mechanical fibers.

Rated Capacity

The amount of paper or paperboard that a given machine has been designed to produce.

Rattle

Crackling sound produced by shaking a sheet of paper indicating its stiffness and density.

Raw Weight

北京28Weight of raw stock before coating.

Ream

北京28A stack of paper containing either 480 or 500 sheets according to paper grade.

Ream Marked

A pile of paper marked by the insertion of small slips of rectangular-shaped paper or "ream markers" at intervals of every 500 or 480 sheets.

Ream Size

Area of paper in a ream, as calculated by width x length x number of sheets in the ream.

Ream Weight

北京28Weight of 500 sheets of paper.

Ream Wrapped

Paper that has been separated into reams and individually packaged for shipment.

北京28Ream Wrappers

A type of coarse paper used to wrap a ream of paper.

北京28Recovered Paper

北京28Used paper and board collected for re-use as raw material in paper and paperboard manufacture.

北京28Recovery Boiler

A unit in Kraft pulping mills where the black liquor is burnt, after concentrating it in an evaporation process. Black liquor burnt in recovery boilers is used to recover inorganic chemicals and to produce energy.

Recovery Rate

Volume of paper recovered as a percentage of volume of paper consumed in an area or a country.

Recto

The odd numbered pages of a book.

Recycled Content

Amount of recycled fibers relative to virgin fibers in paper.

Recycled Content Paper

北京28Paper having some percentage of recycled fibers in it.

Recycled Pulp

Pulp produced from deinking recycled newspapers and old magazines.

Red Lake

北京28A pigment used in paste and liquid red inks.

Reducer

Any substance that softens and reduces the tack of ink.

Reel

A roll at the end of the paper machine on which paper is wound. The reel is then cut into rolls of smaller size.

Reel Sample

北京28A sample taken from a reel of paper for testing.

Refiner

北京28A machine used to grind pulp between two discs to facilitate fibrillation.

北京28Refiner Mechanical Pulp (RMP)

北京28Mechanical pulp produced by passing untreated wood chips between the plates of a refiner.

Refiner Sawdust Pulp

A type of mechanical pulp produced from sawmill dust.

Refining

Refining is a process that increases the surface area of cellulose fibers to improve the fiber bonding.

北京28Reflectivity

北京28Ability of paper or paperboard to reflect light from its surface. It is a measure of gloss.

Register

Placement of two or more images on a sheet of paper to align them with each other.

Register Paper

A type of paper made for easy removal from sticky surfaces.

Reinforcement

北京28A method of strengthening paper with an insert of synthetic fiber or metal.

Reinforcement Pulp

北京28Softwood chemical pulp added for giving paper a greater strength. The reinforcement also improves runnability of paper on the paper machine and printing presses.

Rejects

北京28Material removed and discarded during the cleaning or screening of pulp and papermaking stock.

Relative Density

Mass of per unit volume of a substance.

Relative Humidity

The percentage of moisture in the air relative to the moisture it can hold without saturation.

北京28Release Paper

Backing paper for self-adhesives. Release paper is used to prevent the sticking of glue to other surfaces.

Renewable Resource

A naturally occurring raw material or form of energy with the capacity to replenish itself through the ecological cycles.

Reproduction Paper

A one-side coated paper suitable for fine screen and color printing.

Residues

Useful material left over or arising during production or use and which is recovered.

Retention

北京28Percentage of the amount of filler in the finished paper web relative to what was added into the furnish

Rewinder

An equipment used to slit a large width roll into a smaller width rolls of various sizes to meet specific customer orders.

Ribs

Thin bars of wood, which support the wire cover of a mould.

Rice Paper

A misnomer used to describe Oriental papers. The name might have been derived from the rice size once used in Japanese papermaking.

Right Side of Paper

北京28The side on which the watermark is read correctly.

Ring Crush Test

北京28A test, which measures the stiffness of paper.

Roll Coating

北京28A process in which the coating is applied by a roll. A reverse roll contacting the freshly coated surface subsequently smoothens the coating.

Roofing Paper

A type of paperboard impregnated with tar, bitumen, and/ or natural asphalt.

Rosin

A byproduct of turpentine distillation from the gum of resinous woods. It is used for internal sizing for paper to make it water resistant.

Rosin Size

A soap solution of rosin and caustic soda. It is added to paper or paperboard to make them water resistant.

北京28Rotary Cutter

The machine that converts paper rolls into untrimmed sheets.

北京28Rotogravure Paper

北京28A highly smooth and uncoated groundwood paper used in rotogravure printing of magazines and catalogues.

Rotogravure Printing

A printing process where the images are engraved in the form of cells on the surface of a metal cylinder.

Rough Paper

A textured paper surface obtained by placing the wet paper sheets against textured blankets.

Rough Shake

A sheet of paper in which the fibers are randomly distributed, as in handmade papers.

北京28Round Cornering

Rounding of corners of paper forms and books by a machine.

Rub Proof

A state of printed ink under the maximum dryness. In this state the ink does not smudge.

Runnability

A paper property necessary for a trouble-free run through a paper machine or printing press.

Running Head

A title at the top of a page that appears on all pages or chapter of a book.

Sack Paper

Kraft paper with high strength properties, used to make paper sacks.

Saddle Stitch

A method of binding booklets or other printed materials by stapling the pages on the folded spine.

Safety Paper

A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with. Used mainly for bank checks and other legal documents such as bonds etc.

Salago

A wild shrub in Philippines, which is similar to mulberry. It is used in papermaking as a fibrous raw material.

Sample Room

北京28A location where samples of all grades produced or distributed are both for reference.

Sampling

A technique for obtaining representative samples of paper or pulp.

SAPI

北京28Sales Association of the Paper Industry

Sapwood

北京28Outer layers of a stem composed of living cells for carrying water up the tree.

北京28Satin Finish

A smooth, embossed, and satin-like glossy paper.

Savealls

Savealls recover fibers from waste water fro reuse in papermaking.

SBK

Saturated Base Kraft

SBS

北京28Solid Bleached Sulphate Board

SC Fluting

Board made from unbleached semi-chemical pulp and used as a middle layer for corrugated boards

SC Paper

北京28A type of uncoated paper that has been highly calendered to obtain a smoother surface and higher gloss. Supercalendered paper is used for magazines, catalogues, and direct marketing materials.

Scale

Foreign material that is deposited on the paper web after its formation.

Schopper's Tester

An instrument for measuring the folding endurance of paper.

Scoring

The process of creating a crease in the paper with mechanical means to allow it to fold more easily. Scoring is needed when heavyweight papers are to be folded across the grain.

北京28Screen Angles

A technique used in 4 color printing which sets halftone screens at various angles to avoid moiré patterns.

Screen Ruling

Number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

Screening

Separation of undesired materials such knots, shives, and bark pieces etc into fractions according to their form and size.

Screenings

Rejects such as bark pieces, shives, and knots from the screening of pulp.

Scrubber

A device used to clean gases of particles and dissolved substances such as SO2 gas.

Scuff Resistance

北京28Resistance to scuffing of paper or paperboard. It is measured in terms of number of cycles required to produce a specified degree of scuffing on a specified area with an abrasive object moving at a specified speed.

Scum

Unwanted ink marks in the non-image area.

Scumming

北京28Printing in the Non-image areas of print, due to a faulty plate.

Seasoning

The process of allowing paper to adjust to atmospheric conditions.

Secondary Fiber

Any type of fiber obtained from recycled paper and paperboard.

北京28Secondary Pulp

A lower-quality pulp made from recycled paper.

Seconds

北京28Refers to damaged or imperfect sheets of paper.

Security Paper

北京28A high quality woodfree paper with a genuine multistage water mark to deter counterfeiting and forging.

Self Cover

北京28A cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal sheets.

Semi-alkaline Pulp (SAP)

北京28SAP is a sulphite pulp cooked at slightly alkaline pH (normally, sulphite pulp is cooked at acid pH). It is superior in strength to sulphite pulp and is used mainly in the manufacture of printing papers.

北京28Semi-bleached Pulp

A type of pulp that is bleached to a brightness level somewhere between that of unbleached and fully-bleached pulp.

Semi-chemical Pulp

Pulp produced in a two-stage process. First, the wood is partially digested with chemicals and then the fibers are mechanically separated in a disc refiner. Semi-chemical pulp is used in papers which require fiber stiffness such as papers used in packaging applications.

Set-off

北京28Transferring or smearing of ink from freshly-printed sheets of paper to another surface.

Sharpen

To decrease the dot size of the halftone, this in turn, decreases the color strength.

Sheen

For surfaces with low gloss, the gloss measurement is done at 85 o. The result is usually reported as 'Sheen'.

Sheet

A rectangular piece of paper or board.

Sheet Roll

A roll of paper intended to be trimmed into sheets.

Sheetage

北京28The ratio of surface area to the weight of a paper or a paperboard.

Sheeter

A converting machine that cuts the paper web into sheets.

北京28Sheet-Fed Offset Printing

Offset printing where individual pieces of paper are fed into the press.

Sheeting

北京28The operation of cutting paper rolls into individual sheets.

Sheetwise

The printing of two images on two sides of a sheet of paper by turning the sheet over after the first side is printed by using the same gripper and side guides.

北京28Shipping Roll

北京28A finished roll that is slit and ready to shipping to a customer.

Shives

北京28Tiny bundles of undercooked fibers in stock that have not been separated completely during pulping. Commonly found in papers from mechanical pulps.

北京28Short Fiber

北京28Applies to paper or pulp containing a high proportion of short wood fibers usually from hardwood trees.

北京28Short Fiber Pulp

Pulp produced from hardwoods such as birch and eucalyptus.

Short Grain Paper

北京28Paper in which the machine direction is the shortest sheet dimension.

Short Ink

Ink that is smooth and creamy but does not flow freely.

北京28Short Run Books

北京28A book project less than 10,000 is a short run. Ultra short book runs are less than 1000.

北京28Show Through

A problem in printing when the printed matter on one side of a sheet can be seen from the other side. This happens due to inadequate opacity of paper.

Shrinkage

北京28Decrease in the dimensions of a sheet of paper.

Side Guide

北京28The guides on the sides of a sheet-fed press that position the sheet sideways.

Side Roll

A paper mill term for a roll of paper when the paper ordered does not utilize the full width of the paper machine.

Side Run

北京28A roll differing in width from the rest of the rolls made at time on a slitter.

Side Stitch

北京28To staple sheets on the side closest to the spine.

Sign Board

北京28A type of boxboard made on a cylinder machine, which has been vat-lined with white fibers.

Signature

A section of a book obtained by folding a single sheet of printed paper in 8, 12, 16, or 32 pages.

Silhouette Halftone

Halftones from which the screen around any part of the image has been removed.

Silicone Treated Paper

北京28A type of high-strength, glazed-finished paper treated on one side with silicones to produce release qualities. It is used as a backing material for pressure sensitive papers.

Silvichemicals

Refers to the chemical byproducts of the wood-pulping process and other chemicals derived from wood.

Single Ply

A term applied to paper or paperboard made on a single vat cylinder machine.

北京28Single-face Corrugated Board

Corrugated fiberboard made of two layers, one of fluted paper and another of facing.

Size

北京28A substance, which reduces the rate at which paper absorbs water or ink. It is added to the pulp or applied to the surface of the paper when the paper is dry. Examples include rosin, glue, gelatin, starch, modified cellulose, etc.

北京28Size or Sizing

The process by which a sizing chemical is added to paper to provide it the resistance against absorption of water.

Size Press

北京28A section of the paper machine, located between two drier sections, where sizing agents are added.

Size Tub

北京28A container that holds the sizing chemicals during the tub sizing process.

Skid

北京28A wooden, reusable platform on which paper is stored or shipped.

Slack Edges

Edges of a paper web with a caliper (thickness) less than the center of the paper sheet.

Slack Sized

Paper that is only slightly sized.

Slice

An opening in a paper machine headbox through which pulp is poured onto the Fourdrinier wire.

Slime

A lump of bacteria that can get imbedded in the paper web at the wet-end of the paper machine.

Slime Hole or Spots

北京28A hole in paper with brownish translucent material around the edges. It is caused by micro-organism present in the stock system. Although the slime is sterilized during the drying process, it may leave spots in the paper.

Slipped Roll

Unevenly wound rolls are known as slipped rolls.

Slitter

北京28A sharp circular blade on rewinders that cuts paper rolls in the machine direction into smaller width rolls

Slot

A cut made in fiberboard sheets, usually to form flaps to facilitate folding.

Sludge

北京28Waste created during the biological process in effluent treatment.

北京28Sludge Handling

The process of dewatering and compaction of sludge separated from the treated effluent.

Slurry

A watery suspension of fibers, fillers, coating pigments, and other solid material used in papermaking, or coating.

Slushing

A process of dispersion of fibrous raw materials in water by agitation.

Smoothing Press

北京28Press rolls used to smoothen the paper web before it reaches the driers.

Smoothness

A property of paper that describes the flatness and evenness of a sheet's surface. Smoothness is achieved by calendering or supercalendering. A higher calendering might give reduced brightness and poor opacity. Smoother paper gives a better print reproduction.

Smudge Factor

Susceptibility of an image to abrasion or rubbing.

北京28Soda Pulping

A pulping process in which the wood chips are given alkaline treatment with to produce pulp by digesting the fibers under pressure with a solution of caustic soda (NaOH).

Soda Pulp

A type of chemical pulp in which wood chips are digested in a hot alkaline solution of caustic soda (NaOH).

Soft Fold

北京28A method of preparing large sheets of paper for packing.

北京28Soft Mixed Paper

北京28Refers to magazines and newspapers or papers with shorter fibers. Paperboard packaging may also be present in soft mixed papers.

Soft Roll

A badly or improperly wound roll.

Soft Spot

A spot along the length of a paper roll, which is soft, compared to the adjacent area on the roll.

Softwood

Coniferous trees such as pine, hemlock, and spruce, which have longer fibers than hardwood.

Solid Bleached Sulfate Board (SBS)

北京28Paperboard made from fully bleached virgin Kraft pulp. SBS is used for packaging dry and moist food products, cigarette, and luxury goods etc.

北京28Solid Board

A type of paperboard that is made with the same material throughout its structure.

北京28Solid Chipboard

北京28A type of board made on a cylinder machine entirely from recycled paper with no liner or coating.

北京28Solid Fiberboard

Board with a gsm of over 600 with an outer ply of Kraft pulp. It is used for packaging goods.

北京28Solid-lined Manila Board

A type of manila-colored paperboard made from wood pulp or recycled paper on a cylinder machine. Sometimes a combination of virgin pulp and recycled paper is also used.

北京28Sorted Office Paper

北京28A mix of papers collected for recycling. It can includes writing and copy papers, computer paper, notepads, advertising booklets, letterhead and envelopes.

Specialty Pulp

北京28A grade of chemical pulp used for purposes other than ordinary papermaking, for example in textile production.

Specialty Paper

Coated and uncoated paper produced to meet the unique needs of customers with diverse and specialized usage. Specialty paper examples include sanitary papers, labels, sack papers, wrapping papers, metallized base paper, coated bag paper, etc.

Specific Volume, Bulk

Reciprocal of paper density, also known as specific volume.

Specifier

Someone suggests the grade of paper or board to be selected for a particular use.

Speck

北京28A small defect due to presence of foreign substance in the paper.

北京28Spectrophotometer

An instrument that measures the relative intensity of color or difference in color.

Spent Liquor

Used cooking liquor separated from the pulp after the pulping process. It contains lignin and other substances extracted from the wood.

Spine

北京28The backbone of a book.

Spinning Papers

北京28Paper suitable for being spun into yarn or string. This type of papers have a high tensile strength in the machine direction.

北京28Spiral Binding

北京28A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side.

Splice

A joint made in a web of paper with glue or adhesive tape when the web breaks during the winding or rewinding operation.

Splice Tag

A tag or marker indicating the location of a splice.

北京28Split Coating

Process of simultaneously coating one side of a sheet with two different colors.

Spool

北京28A continuous roll of paper or cardboard rolled around a mandrel.

Spread

A film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. Reference trapping

北京28Square Sheet

北京28A sheet that has equal strength and tear resistance both the directions - machine and cross.

Stability

The quality of paper to maintain its original size when subjected to atmospheric changes.

Stabilize

The matter left over after extracting sugar from sugarcane.

Starch

A white, odorless carbohydrate obtained from corn, tapioca, and potatoes that is used as a surface or internal additive to provide strength.

Starch Coated

Coated papers in which starch is used as an adhesive for the pigment.

Starred Rolls

Rolls that have damaged ends due to mishandling.

北京28Static Electricity

北京28The electrical charge which sometimes collect on paper, which has been improperly dried or has sustained excessive pressure in calendering.

Static Neutralizer

A device on printing presses that minimizes the static build up on paper as it passes through the press.

Steam Calendering or Finishing

A method of treating paper with steam before calendering to improve its density and surface smoothness.

北京28Stencil-duplicating Paper

北京28An oil-absorbent paper, which has a toothy surface.

Stickies

北京28Water insoluble contaminants in recycled fiber such as adhesives, binders, thermal plastics, etc.

Stiffness

Resistance of paper to bending. Stiffness is a critical property for paper during the printing, converting, and filling processes.

Stippling

北京28Stippling is a converting process that applies an embossed surface to the paper.

Stock

Stock is a suspension of water, fibers, and papermaking chemicals.

Stock Pump

A centrifugal pump used to pump water and fiber suspensions.

Stocking Merchant

北京28A paper distributor or merchant who hold enough paper in warehouse to fill orders in the market.

Stone Groundwood Pulp

A mechanical pulping process in which wood logs are ground against a rotating grindstone. Stone groundwood pulps have low strength properties but good optical properties

Straw Pulp

Pulp made from the straws as a raw material (e.g. rice straw).

Strawboard

A type of board made from partially cooked straw or bagasse or a combination of these.

Strength

The ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stresses. Strength of paper is measured by tests for tensile, burst, tear, and folding strength.

Stretch

Elongation of paper under tension. The elongation is expressed as a percentage of the original length when stressed at a given load.

Strike Through

The penetration of ink through paper.

Stripping

Positioning of positives and negatives on the flat before proceeding to platemaking.

Structural Box

北京28A self-supporting box.

Stub Roll

Refers to a small diameter roll. Also used for a roll with only a small amount of paper remaining it.

Stuck Web

北京28A condition where two layers of paper stick together because of a tacky material coming in between the layers.

Stuff

北京28Paper stock or pulp ready for manufacture into paper.

Stuff Chest

A large supply tank with an agitator in which the stock is stored before getting pumped to the vat or machine.

Su

北京28A flexible bamboo screen used in Japanese papermaking.

Substance Weight

Same as basis weight. It is mainly used with bond and business paper grades. Substance weight is also expressed as "sub”.

Substrate

北京28Material such as paper or plastic, generally in sheet or web form.

北京28Suction Box

北京28A device on a paper machine that removes water from the paper web using vacuum. Suction boxes are located below the wire at the wet-end.

Suction Couch Roll

北京28A revolving and perforated bronze roll passing over a suction box to extract water from the paper web.

Sulfate Process

北京28An alkaline pulp manufacturing process, which uses caustic soda and sodium sulfite solution to cook wood chips under pressure. The sulphate process is also known as Kraft process.

Sulfate Pulp

北京28An alkaline pulp manufactured by cooking wood chips with caustic soda and sodium sulfite solution at an elevated pressure. The sulphate pulp is also known as Kraft pulp.

北京28Sulfite Pulp

Paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of calcium bisulfite and sulfurous acid.

Sulphate Board

A strong linerboard. Also known as Kraft board.

Sulphur Dioxide

北京28A gas formed during the combustion of sulphur-containing fuels such as black liquor and oil.

北京28Supercalender

An auxiliary equipment that gives paper a smooth finish and gloss by passing it through a series of alternate metal and compressed cotton rolls, revolving at a high speed.

Supercalendered Paper

北京28A type of uncoated paper that has been highly calendered to obtain a smooth surface and high gloss than the machine-finished paper. It is used for printed advertising material, catalogues, and magazines.

北京28Surface Bonding

Refers to resistance of surface fibers to separating or picking.

Surface Defect

A visible defect or foreign material on the surface of paper.

北京28Surface Sized

A type of paper that has been sized when the web of paper was partially dry to increase its resistance to ink penetration.

Surface Strength

The ability of the paper surface to resist picking during the printing process. Surface strength can be measured by the wax pick test.

北京28Surface Treatment

北京28Treating the surface of paper or board with sizing chemicals, coating, or color.

Suspended Solids (SS)

北京28Substances suspended in water consisting of bark, fibers, fillers, coating color, and residues from paper mill that can be separated with a filter.

Synthetic Papers

Papers made from synthetic fibers such as polyamide and polyester etc. The fibers are held together by binders.

T4S

Trimmed four sides. A paper sheet that has been trimmed on all its four sides.

北京28Tablet Papers

北京28A type of paper used to manufacture the tablets designed for writing.

北京28Tabloid Fold

First parallel fold.

Tack

The adhesive quality of inks.

TAD

Through-Air Drying.

Tag Stock

A dense, strong paper stock. It is used for items such as baggage and store item tags.

Talc

Mineral used in papermaking as a filler and coating pigment.

Tall Oil

A by-product obtained during the evaporation of sulfate black liquor.

TAPPI

北京28Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry.

Tare Weight

The weight of the container and/or wrapper deducted from the gross weight to determine the net weight of the contents.

TCF

Total Chlorine Free

Tear Factor

北京28Tear factor is calculated as tear strength per unit grammage (g/m2).

北京28Tear Strength

The resistance of a sheet of paper to tearing, as measured by the force required to tear a strip under standard conditions. Tear strength is an important performance factor to a printer or converter.

Tearing Resistance

北京28Force needed to tear a paper specimen under specified conditions.

Tearing Wire

北京28A thick wire fixed to a mould producing a thinner line of paper to facilitate tearing into two sheets.

Technical Papers

A grade of medium-grammage papers used for industrial and advertising purpose.

北京28Telescoped Roll

A misaligned paper roll with one end concave, the other convex caused by the slippage of inner layers of the web.

Tensile Strength

The force, parallel with the plane of the paper, required to produce failure in a specimen under specified conditions of loading. Tensile strength is measured in both the grain and cross-grain directions.

Test Linerboard

北京28Used as an outer layer of a corrugated board. It is made partly from chemical pulp and partly from the recycled paper pulp.

Text Paper

北京28A high-quality printing paper available in multiple colors and finishes. It is used for annual reports, announcements, booklets, etc.

The A Series

The A series is a general term for printed matter including stationary and publications.

北京28Thermal Paper

北京28A type of paper with a heat-sensitive coating on which an image can be produced by the application of heat. It is used on telefax machines, thermoplotters, and thermoprinters.

Thermography

A printing process in which a slow drying ink is applied to paper and while the ink is still wet, it is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface.

Thermomechanical Pulp (TMP)

北京28A grade of mechanical pulp made by presteaming wood chips, producing a higher yield and stronger pulp than the regular groundwood.

北京28Thickness (Caliper)

The distance between the two surfaces of a sheet of paper. It is measured in microns, or thousandths of a millimeters. Thickness of paper is affected by its moisture content. Thickness determines the stiffness of paper, an important quality for its smooth running on high speed copiers and printers.

Thin Paper

北京28A paper having a grammage of 40 g/m2 or less

北京28Through Drier

A slower drier that dries the ink throughout without forming a hard crust.

Through-Air Drying

北京28A method of drying the tissue paper running over a perforated drum through which the hot air is blown.

Ticket Bristol

北京28A type of bristol used for ticket purposes. It is usually made from mechanical pulp and/or recycled paper pulp.

Tint

北京28A very light or delicate variation of a color.

Tissue Overlay

A thin and translucent paper placed over art work for protection.

Tissue Paper

A general term for a variety of high-quality, creped hygiene papers including towels, wipes, toilet, facial, napkin, and special sanitary papers. Tissue papers should be soft, strong when wet, and lint-free.

Titanium Dioxide

A mineral added to papermaking furnish and/or coating of paper to improve the opacity and brightness of the paper.

Tolerance

The permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.

Tooth

A rough-finish paper, which absorbs the inks readily.

Top Side

The felt side of a sheet of paper. The top side of a sheet is the side not against the wire during manufacture and is smoother than the wire side.

Top Sizing

北京28Surface or tub sizing of paper, which has already been internally sized.

Topliner

Topliner is the outermost layer of paperboard.

Total Chlorine Free

Pulp bleached without the use of chlorine compounds such as chlorine gas or chlorine dioxide.

Total Reduced Sulphur (TRS)

北京28Unpleasant smelling sulphur compounds released into the air from Kraft mills.

Tough Check

北京28A high-strength bristol made on a cylinder machine.

Translucent Papers

Papers that allow the information to be seen through them.

北京28Transparent Ink

北京28A type of ink that permits the previous printing to be seen through. Process inks are transparent.

北京28Trapping Of Inks

北京28A printing ink property that makes it possible to superimpose one color on another.

Trim

The maximum width of paper that can be made on a particular paper machine excluding the edges that are normally cut off.

Trim Marks

北京28Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to trim the page.

Trimmer

A machine equipped with a guillotine blade that can cut paper to the desired size.

Trimmings

北京28Paper or paperboard left over from sheet cutting operations.

Tub-Sized

A paper that has been surface-treated or impregnated with a sizing material in a tub-size press.

北京28Twin-Wire Machine

北京28Paper or paperboard machine on which the web is formed and partially dewatered between two vertical wires. This assures a lower two-sidedness resulting in a higher quality printing on both sides.

Two-Sidedness

北京28The difference in feel, appearance, and printability between the two (top and wire) sides of paper.

北京28Unbleached Pulp

The pulp, which has been cooked but has not been bleached.

Uncalendered

Papers that have not gone through the calendaring process.

Uncoated Fine Paper

北京28A type of uncoated printing and writing paper produced from bleached chemical pulp with little or no mechanical pulp.

北京28Uncoated Groundwood

A type of paper that is used as printing papers for catalogues, directories, periodicals, advertising circulars, etc.

Uncoated Paper

北京28The paper, which has not been coated with any of the various coating substances.

Uncoated Weight

Weight of the base stock before the coating pigment is added.

Uncoated Woodfree Paper

北京28A type of uncoated printing and writing paper made from bleached chemical pulp. It is used for photocopying, stationery, and printing, etc.

北京28Unglazed (UG)

Uncalendered paper

Unryu

北京28Unryu means 'cloud dragon' paper in Japanese.

Unsized

北京28The paper, which has not been, sized either internally or on the surface.

Upright

北京28A term given to books bound on the longer dimension.

北京28Utilization Rate

北京28The amount of recycled paper used to make a certain amount of paper.

UV Coating

北京28A glossy coating applied to the printed paper surface and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light. UV coating is used for printing the covers of paperback novels.

UV Ink

A type of ink that dries quickly on exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light while still on press. UV drying improves turnaround time because it eliminates waiting time for the first side to dry before printing the second side.

Varnish

A primary component of the ink vehicle.

Varnish Label Paper

北京28Label papers, which have been varnished (or lacquered) after printing. Varnishing aims to protect the printing and increases the paper's gloss, as well as improves its barrier properties.

Vegetable Parchment

北京28Vegetable parchment, also called as parchment paper, is a highly pure packaging material that is impermeable to water and grease. It is made by passing paper through a bath of sulphuric acid. It has a high dry and wet strength and it is used for packaging frozen, moist or greasy food products.

Vehicle

The liquid part of an ink that gives it flow enabling it to be applied to a surface.

Vellum Finish

北京28A slightly rough or "toothy" surface on a sheet of paper, which facilitates a faster absorbance of printing ink.

北京28 Velour Paper

北京28A type of paper that is coated with an adhesive and then flock-dusted.

Velox

A photographic print made from a negative.

Virgin Fiber

Wood fibers that have been derived from trees and have not been previously processed into paper. Also known as primary fiber.

Viscometer

An instrument used to measure the viscosity of fluids.

Viscose Pulp

A type of dissolving pulp for manufacturing viscose.

Viscosity

The resistance of a fluid to flow.

Vulcanized Fiber

北京28Cotton-fibered paper treated with zinc chloride. Vulcanized fibers are used in the electrical industry.

Wadding

A single or multi-ply, fiber sheet made from chemical pulp. It is used in thermal and acoustical and in packaging applications.

北京28Wall Base Paper

A collective term for papers intended for wallpaper production.

Washer Room

北京28A pulp mill department where the pulp is washed free of cooking chemicals.

Washi

Washi refers to any Japanese paper, traditionally made or otherwise.

北京28Washing Deinking

A deinking method in which solid particles are separated on the basis of their size.

Washup

The process of cleaning ink from all of the printing elements of a press such as rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.

北京28Waste Paper

北京28Waste paper refers to recycled paper such as newspapers, magazines, and office papers.

Wastepaper Stock

Pulp derived from recycled paper.

北京28Water Color Paper

北京28A type of drawing paper with a rough or structured surface.

北京28Water Finish

Water finish resembles the machine glazed finish. It is obtained by moistening the web with a spray of water as it passes through the calender stacks.

Water Resistance

The resistance of paper to absorption of water. Water resistance can be achieved by internal sizing with rosin.

Water Vapor Permeability

The rate at which the water vapor passes through a sheet of paper.

Waterleaf

北京28A type of paper with little or no sizing which make it the most absorbent paper.

Waterlined Paper

北京28A type of writing paper in which watermark lines run through the sheet.

Watermark

Watermarks are designs or patterns impressed into paper by the raised pattern of the dandy roll on the paper machine. It appears in the finished sheet either as a lighter or darker area than the rest of the paper. Watermarks can be used to identify a company, reinforce a brand or can be added to paper as a security measure.

Wavy Edge

北京28The waviness of a paper skid's periphery. The wavy edges are caused by a increase in moisture content of the edges as compared to the center of the sheet.

Wax Paper

Sulphite or sulphate papers impregnated or surface coated with wax after paper is made.

Wax Pick

北京28A test to determine the surface strength of paper or board. Wax pick test uses a series of hard resins and which are pulled from the surface of the test paper. The highest numbered wax in the series, which does not disturb the surface of the paper, indicates the numerical rating of pick resistance. This test measures the surface bonding strength of paper.

Waxed Paper

北京28A type of woodfree paper that has been impregnated with paraffin or wax. Waxed paper is used for packaging bread and sweets etc.

Waxing

北京28Coating of paper or paperboard with paraffin or wax.

Web

北京28The continuous sheet of paper made on a paper machine.

Web Break

A tear in paper web during its manufacture on a paper machine, conversion a converting machine or during its run on a printing press.

北京28Web Cleaner

A vacuum cleaner placed ahead of the first printing unit to remove foreign particles from the paper web.

Web Glazing

Imparting gloss to the paper surface by calendering it between a set of calender rolls.

Web Offset Paper

A type of paper that is printed in a continuous manner from a roll. It is strong enough to withstand the rigors of printing at high speeds.

Web Press

A printing press that prints rolls of paper as a continuous piece as opposed to sheets of paper.

北京28Web Tension

The amount of pull applied in the direction of the travel of a paper web by the action of a web-fed press.

北京28Wedding Paper

北京28A type of paper, which is soft and thick and holds up well under embossing.

Weddings

北京28A type of finer quality, vellum-finished printing papers.

Weft Wire

Light exposure that affects chemical.

Wet End

First section of the paper machine up to the dryers. At the wet end, the stock enters the machine and the bulk of the water is removed by dewatering, suction, and pressing.

北京28Wet Machine

A type of paper machine consisting of a wire-covered cylinders rotating in a vat of pulp stock.

Wet Rub

Resistance of wet paper to scuffing and linting.

Wet Strength

北京28Mechanical strength of paper when re-wetted with water.

北京28Wet Strength Papers

北京28Ordinary papers lose most of their dry strength properties when saturated with water. Wet strength papers resist disintegration and rupture when saturated with water. Wet strength papers should retain 15% or more of their dry-tensile strength.

北京28Wet Tensile Strength

北京28Ability of a wet paper sheet to resist tension applied in its plane.

White Lined Chipboard (WLC)

A type of board made from recovered fibers. It is often mineral coated and used for consumer cartons for dry food and non-food products.

北京28White Liquor

北京28The cooking liquor used in production of sulphate pulp. It contains sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide.

White Office Paper

A mix of paper collected for recycling. It includes computer printout, white copy paper and writing paper, and white envelopes without plastic windows.

北京28White Paper

北京28A type of paper whose natural color has been corrected by the addition of blue, yellow, and red dyes. Sometimes the term refers to printing and writing papers.

White Water

The milky water extracted from the furnish at the wet-end of the paper machine. It is reused in the paper making process because of its richness in fines and chemicals.

北京28White Water System

A flow system for white water, which includes pipes, storage tanks, cleaning equipment, water from forming section and return feed.

Whiteness

An aesthetic quality, defining the look of the paper.

Wicking

The tendency of printing ink, to feather or move on the surface of a paper sheet or through to the other side of the paper.

Winder

北京28A machine for cutting the paper web in the machine direction into narrower rolls. Winders are also known as slitter-winder.

Wire

A flat belt of metal or plastic mesh used to dewater the paper furnish on the wet-end of paper machine. Also known as forming fabric.

Wire Holes

Clean-edged holes without any contamination or foreign material. Caused by forming fabric or wire.

Wire Mark

The impression left on the paper by the forming fabric on the paper machine.

Wire Side

The side of paper, which is formed in contact with the wire on the Fourdrinier paper machine. Wire side is not as smooth as the felt or top side of the paper.

北京28With the Grain

A direction parallel to the grain of paper.

Wood Bank

An arrangement in which companies exchange wood raw material to minimize transport cost.

Wood Chip

The coin-sized piece of wood, which is cooked in the digester.

Wood Extractives

北京28Metabolic substance in wood that can be removed by solution in hot or cold water, ethers or other solvents that do not react chemically with wood.

北京28Wood Preservative

Products that protect wood from pests.

北京28Wood Procurement

Purchase, harvesting, and transport of wood to the mill for further processing to convert it into paper.

Wood Pulp

Mechanical or chemical pulp made from hardwood or softwood.

Wood Room

The debarking and chipping section of a pulp mill.

Wood Yard

北京28The area in a mill where logs are stored, debarked, and chipped.

Woodcontaining

北京28A paper containing a certain proportion of mechanical pulp.

Woodfree

Paper made from chemical pulp and free from wood-based impurities, such as lignin, which are present in mechanical pulp.

北京28Woodfree Paper

Paper made from chemical wood pulps. Also referred to as "free sheet”.

Wove

The paper finish obtained by the impressions of a felt dandy roll.

Wove Dandy

A dandy roll covered with a wire cloth to achieve a wove finish.

Wove Paper

北京28A type of paper with a smooth and even surface made on a mould with a fine wire mesh.

Wrapper

Paper or paperboard, which are used to protect a roll form damage.

Writing Paper

北京28A type of uncoated paper that is suitable for writing with inks on both sides. Writing papers are always sized and can be woodfree or woodcontaining.

Xerographic Paper

A generic term for papers suitable for use in the xerographic process.

Xylem

北京28A part of a tree between the bark and the pith from where the papermaking fiber is obtained.

Yankee Dryer

北京28A steam-heated paper dryer consisting of a large revolving drum. Yankee dryer is a single large dryer at the end of the paper machine. They are used for making thin sheets such as toilet tissue and machine glazed papers.

北京28Yellowing (Reversion)

Discoloration of a sheet of paper due to exposure to light and / or heat. Papers made from mechanical pulp are particularly susceptible to yellowing.

Yield

The amount of raw material entering a pulp and papermaking operation to the equivalent product output.

北京28Zero Discharge

Zero discharge means that no effluents are discharged from the pulp and paper mill. Such mills are also known as totally effluent free (TEF).